This section is from the book "A History And Description Of The Modern Dogs Of Great Britain And Ireland. (Non-Sporting Division)", by Rawdon Briggs Lee. Also available from Amazon: A History And Description Of The Modern Dogs Of Great Britain And Ireland, Non-Sporting Division.
"The head is one of the important characteristics of the variety; its appearance should be one of striking massiveness in proportion to the animal's size as well as compared with that of any other animal. It cannot be too large so long as it be square, that is to say, it must not be wider than it is deep; it should be of great depth from the occiput to the base of the lower jaw, of as great circumference as possible, squarely shaped, and must not be in any degree wedge shaped, dome shaped, or peaked. Of course the head of a female is never as large or so well developed as that of the male, and this remark applies to nearly every point throughout. The jaws should be broad, massive, square, and powerful. The lower jaw should project considerably beyond the upper jaw, though I regret that this point is by no means insisted upon by many judges, as some notable prize winners lately have been almost level jawed.
"Whilst casting history to the winds, it appears to me that points emblematic of the now obsolete function should be preserved, and it is very certain that a protruding under jaw was a point very strongly insisted on by old time breeders, as it enabled their dogs to breathe whilst pinning the bull's nose. It must be admitted that when carried to excess this feature is very unsightly on the show bench, which probably accounts for the growing tendency to countenance 'froggy' specimens. The face, by which is meant all that part of the animal which is in front of the eye, should be extremely short, with broad truncated muzzle, distinctly inclined upwards, which must occur if the formation of the lower jaw is correct. By the expression "froggy" is meant a dog with level jaws, that is to say, not underhung, though in some few cases it even amounts to being overshot. The terms "wry faced' or "twisted jawed" are synonymous, and denote that the lower jaw has the appearance of being contorted. This deformity, though a great eyesore, does not exist in the bone, but in the soft structures forming the lower half of the face. I have proved this by examining the skulls of "wry faced" dogs, in none of which was there assymmetry. I believe this "wry face" to be caused by injury at the time of the birth of the puppy, and that it is not hereditary.
"The face should be broad in proportion to the skull, otherwise the animal is called 'pinched faced,' and deep through the muzzle, or otherwise the animal is what is called 'monkey-faced.' When viewed in profile it should appear as if the tip of the nose would just touch an imaginary straight line drawn from the extremity of the lower lip to the frontal eminence between the brows. The bones of the lower jaw in specimens which have the desired appearance, known as 'upturn ' and 'lay back,' are found to have the contour of a segment of a circle. No other colour looks well for the lips than black, and nothing spoils the appearance of a white dog so much as not having entirely black lips.
"The upper lip, called the 'chop,' should be very thick and deep, hanging completely over the lower jaw at the sides, but only just joining the lower lip in front, yet quite covering the teeth, otherwise the dog is said 'to grin.'On the thickness of the 'chop' depends the amount of 'cushion,' a point very much sought after by modern exhibitors. Some, however, are of opinion that it is very undesirable to have the chops large to the point of being pendulous. For my part I think that the appearance of a dog is enhanced by very deep chops, so long as they are of a good thickness; but what spoils the appearance of a dog is having long thin chops like a bloodhound's flews. The teeth should be large and strong, the tusks should be wide apart, the front teeth between the tusks should be regular, which they very rarely are, and in most bulldogs the incisors of the lower jaw are mere apologies for teeth.
"The nose must lie well back, the tip being set nearly back to the 'stop,' and should be broad, large, deep, and perfectly black. Of all the bulldogs I have seen all have had smooth noses if they have been in health, and the only authority I know of who admires a rough nose in a bulldog is Mr. Frank Adcock. The nostrils should be large and wide, with a well-defined straight line visible between them; but a split septum or nostril may be taken as an absolute disqualification under any judge nowadays, and what is very much more common is a defect in one wing of the nose, which makes the two nostrils dissimilar, and is looked upon by many judges as a serious blemish. A parti-coloured nose, which is called a 'butterfly' nose, handicaps the animal, while few judges would have the temerity to place a dog with a 'Dudley' or flesh-coloured nose in the prize list.
"What is known as the 'stop' is the indentation in the bone at the junction of the forehead and the face. It is a point of great importance, and should be very deep. From this 'stop' there should be a deep, broad furrow, extending upwards between the brows, gradually disappearing when the occiput is reached.
"The expression 'well broken up' is used where this 'stop' and furrow are well marked, which, if accompanied with a quantity of loose and well-wrinkled skin about the head, give the animal's expression style and finish. The term 'lay back' is often confused with what is meant by 'stop.' 'Lay back' is the facial angle, and can only be properly ascertained by viewing the dog side face, whereas 'stop' can only be appreciated looking a dog full in the face, or, better still, by feeling the skull with one's two thumbs. The brows should be prominent, square, broad, and high. The occiput should be flat from ear to ear; the forehead large but flat, not overhanging the face, and of great breadth when compared with the height from the nasal bone to the occiput. The cheeks rounded, extending laterally beyond the eyes, and the cheek tumps well defined - points which probably are not fully developed until the third year.