This section is from the book "A History And Description Of The Modern Dogs Of Great Britain And Ireland. (Non-Sporting Division)", by Rawdon Briggs Lee. Also available from Amazon: A History And Description Of The Modern Dogs Of Great Britain And Ireland, Non-Sporting Division.
"The elbows should be set on low, turned outwards, standing well away from the ribs, so as to permit the body to swing between them, and giving the legs the appearance of being loosely tacked on the sides of the body. It is probable that the great depth of the ribs between the forelegs makes the forelegs look shorter than they really are. The thick covering of muscle which is found on the outside of the forelegs of many of the most typical dogs conveys a suspicion of bow leggedness, which would be a great fault. The knee in an adult animal is hidden by a thick coating of flesh and muscle. The pasterns should be short, stout, straight, upright, and strong, not everted so much as in many of the wide-chested but knock-kneed dogs. The fore feet straight, round, rather large, not turning inwards in the least, and turning outwards only very slightly, with toes thick, compact, and well split up to the knuckles, the latter being prominent and high. .
"The hind legs, though of slighter build than the forelegs, should be strong and muscular; they are distinctly larger than the forelegs so as to elevate the loins above the level of the top of the shoulders. The stifles should by their covering of muscle appear rounded, and should stand slightly away from the body, thus inclining the hocks inward and the hind feet outward, but not 'cow hocked,' which is always a sign of bad rearing, and is a serious impediment to freedom of movement. The hocks should be well let down, moderately straight and low, giving great length from the hip to this joint, and making the pastern short, but not so short as those of the fore legs. The hind feet rather smaller than the fore feet, and turned decidedly outward; they are generally supposed to be required round and compact, but, as a matter of fact, are nearly always longer and more hare footed in shape than the fore feet. The toes certainly look best if split up and if the knuckles are prominent.
"The coat should be of fine texture, close and smooth; silky when stroked from head towards tail and hard, owing to its closeness, but not wiry when stroked in the reverse direction. There have been cases lately where dogs have been shown with peculiarly long hair about the withers, but this is decidedly ugly.
"The colour ought to be brilliant, and preferably should contain one of these colours either pure or mixed, viz., white, brindle, red fawn, or fallow, but the two last are considered by some as 'weak' colours, and a whole coloured dog is most generally admired. Some authorities maintain that black and tan should absolutely disqualify, though such opinion has not lately always been upheld; thus a black and tan awarded a prize by one judge has been disqualified by another. It is not possible to dispute a dog being a black and tan if he has 'beauty' and 'kissing' spots. With the exception of black and tan, black and white, black, blue slate, all of which are objectionable, colour is a matter of little importance, and in cases of equal merit in other respects anyone may be guided by his own fancy. In cases where the predominating colour is white with only small patches of black and tan, I myself see no reason why the dog should be discarded.
"In looking at the symmetry, carriage, and gait of a bulldog from in front one should be struck by the great breadth and depth of its fore parts, which should gradually taper off to the stern, as the bulldog should present as much as possible to view in front of his shoulders and as little as possible behind them.
"A bulldog in stature should be low on the ground, more so in front than behind, the body being carried between and not on his forelegs. The height of its foreleg, from the ground to the elbow, should not exceed the distance from the elbow to the centre of the back between the shoulder blades. Considerable weight attaches to the freedom and activity displayed by the animal in its movements as well as the extraordinary roll in its gait; by activity is meant not that of a terrier but a freedom of movement proportionate to the massiveness of the animal's formation, and, although there is a peculiarly constrained manner of gait natural to the breed, which is caused by the big, heavy head, chest, and shoulders, and by the greater height of the hind legs as compared with that of the fore legs, still, surely it is not too much to expect an animal whose progenitors were capable of performing such deeds of daring and endurance, unless deserving of being called a cripple, to be able at least to follow his master in his daily walks. Anything approaching deformity, weakness, or crippledness is rightly considered highly objectionable, though this point does not appear to be always clearly ascertained.
"The average weight of bulldogs is now from 4olb. to 5olb., and of bull bitches 351b. to 451b., but dogs have been shown as heavy as 651b. within the last three years.
"In disposition the bulldog is never treacherous; if he is savage there is no disguise of the fact, and he is then a very undesirable possession. If well brought up he is the best of companions, safe with children, and most forgiving of their tricks, capable of being taught to retrieve by land or water, and by his perfect manners ingratiating himself in any household. That most bulldogs are impulsive and impetuous at any sudden emergency there is no doubt, but they are easily restrained, and obey commands. A bulldog without animation, apparently disregarding insult or injury, is a pitiable object." The numerical points would be as follows:
Skull, head, and face...
Shoulders and chest...
Legs and feet............
Hindquarters and stern
Body and back .........
Grand Total, 100.