"The fore legs should be straight, well lined with muscle, to give them a round, powerful appearance, ending with good, large, well closed feet, standing on them like a terrier. The chest above must be wide, and come well down, giving the dog a bold, broad front; the body should sway well between the fore and hindquarters, and not tucked up at the loins; powerful hindquarters, with no horrible cow-hocks, and ending with a tail the length of which should not reach below the hocks, be without a kink, curl, or curve, and carried low down. There is nothing to my mind more unsightly in a Newfoundland than a tail curled on the back or with a kink in it; personally I like to see the tail carried more after the style of a setter, and do not quite agree with the Club's authorised carriage of tail. Now as to coat. To obtain a correct coat is another difficulty, and to describe a proper one is about as difficult; the purpose for which it is required makes it so. It must, however, be straight, without wave or curl, long coarse hair, not wool, with a good warm under coat, which water will not penetrate; the arrangement being, that, when the dog comes out of water and shakes himself, which he invariably does, the water is thrown off, and he is dry in a very short time.

"Looking at a good, well-built dog should be like looking broadside on at a first-class cob; he must be built on similar lines. The average height of a dog is 28in., and bitches 25m. to 27m., at the shoulder. For a more detailed description of the points of a Newfoundland I must refer readers of these notes to the Newfoundland Club's description, which is printed below.

"It may not be out of place here to give a short description of some of the best Newfoundlands' kennels of the present day, but I cannot in justice do so without first travelling back a few years to bring in poor old Champion Nelson I., a dog that may well be said to have been the father of Newfoundlands in this country. In doing so I must not forget his breeder, Mrs. Cunliffe Lee, a lady who has probably had little credit given her for the part she has played in producing several really first-class dogs. Nelson I. was not large in size, but quite large enough, and answered well the above description of a Newfoundland. From this grand old dog we may trace the present race of high-class Newfoundlands, many of which I shall hereafter mention. From Mrs. Lee he went to the kennels of Mr. E. Nichols, and there he was mated with a bitch with pedigree unknown, named Jennie. From this alliance was produced, in the year 1881, a litter of six, all of which have left triumphant records in the exhibition world and Stud Book, their respective names being Courtier, Bruce II., Lady Mayoress, Lady-in-Waiting, Sybil, and Mistress of the Robes.

"From them may be traced the foundations of half a dozen kennels, which I will shortly describe, and commence with that of Mr. E. Nichols, of St. Mary Abbott's Terrace, Kensington, who for years, it may be said, quite took the lead as a breeder of Newfoundlands. Nelson I. and Lady Mayoress were almost invincible in the show ring; indeed, Lady Mayoress in her time beat every dog and bitch living except her sire, Sybil also doing excellent service. After breeding numberless high-class good dogs, Mr. Nichols secured Lord Nelson, a son of Nelson I., from Mrs. Lee, his breeder, and this young dog, at eighteen months old, astonished the Newfoundland world, as he combined great size with all the points of a good dog. Brought out at the Crystal Palace, he "cleared the board," won great honours for several years, but eventually he grew rather coarse, and had to make way for others.

"Following Mr. Nichols' comes the kennel of Mr. H. R. Farquharson, M.P., of Eastbury Park, Blandford, and president of the Newfoundland Club since its establishment in 1886. In their infancy Mr. Farquharson purchased, from Mr. Nichols, Courtier, Lady-in-Waiting, and Mistress of the Robes, all of which did credit to this well-known kennel, for, besides winning prizes, Lady-in-Waiting produced such dogs as Hanlon, Alderman, and Bismarck. Hanlon, who secured his championship by successive wins at Kennel Club Shows, is a regular Newfoundlander, his ears are slightly too large, and that is all the fault that can be found with him. This kennel also contained the well-known dogs Joe Sadler (the sire of Hanlon) and Gunville.

"Mr. C. W. Cunningham, of Marloes-road, W., the secretary of the Newfoundland Club, has been mixed up with Newfoundlands all his life. He owns Black Prince II. and some very good bitches, and is one of the most earnest members of his club in looking after the interests of his favourite dog. Another modern enthusiast is Mr. C. C. Ralli, of Brunswick Buildings, Liverpool. Mrs. Matthews, Barrow-in-Furness; Mr. Crossfield, Captain Jolly, Mr. James Green, Mr. W. C. King, Dr. Jackson, Mr. J. Caroline, Mr. W. Paterson, Glasgow; Mr. H. Champness, Westminster; and Mr. J. W. Bennett, own good specimens at the present time, and in Master Jumbo Mr. C. Haldenby, of Hull, shows one of the most typical black Newfoundlands of the day, though he does carry his tail badly at times. Miss Rich's Black Guard II., who won the championship at the last Kennel Club Show, is also a particularly fine specimen of the breed.

"I must say something of my own kennels, in which we have had between thirty and forty Newfoundlands at one time. After purchasing Leo V. and Champion Zoe, we found we were on the wrong road, but we had, under the guidance of Mr. Nichols and Mr. Farquharson, obtained Courtier, Lady Mayoress, and Gunville, also The Black Prince, Sybil, and Mistress of the Robes, with which we were very successful as exhibitors. Later we bred such notable dogs as Alliance, Coastguard, Jack Tar (now the property of Mr. S. Cameron, of Melbourne), Armada, Sea Nymph, and many others. We also brought out a young dog, Pirate King (bred by Mrs. Lee, and a son of Courtier), which soon became a champion, and passed into the hands of Mr. W. Paterson, of Glasgow. So recently as the autumn of 1893 Mrs. Mansfield showed an excellent young dog at the Kennel Club Show called Piermaster, by Hematite from Lady Mayoress II".