Why have insects without jaws long tubular tongues?

Because they derive their nourishment chiefly from liquids, which they get from animal or vegetable substances by means of this spiral or tubular tongue, or a soft proboscis with a broad opening, admitting of extension and retraction ; or a horny pointed tube, containing sharp bristly bodies internally.

In many species of the butterfly, this proboscis, when not in use, is coiled up like a watch-spring.

Why are insects supposed to possess the organs of hearing, although no traces of such organs have been detected in them?

Because they emit a variety of sounds by the friction produced by their mandibles, their wings, and their legs, which are communicated to others, and understood by them. The proofs of the existence of taste and smell in the different tribes, rest on the same foundation, the evidence of the function being performed. These senses are chiefly used in the animal economy in subserviency to the digestive system. The organs in which they reside are probably the palpi (resembling short antennae) or the other more flexible parts of the mouth. But these parts are so different in their form from the organs employed for the same purpose in the higher classes of animals, and so diminutive in size, that neither analogy nor dissection can be called in to illustrate the subject. - Fleming.

Numerous facts have long ago proved that several insects can distinguish the odorous properties of bodies even at considerable distances. But the organ in which that sense resides has not been clearly pointed out. - From the German.

Why is the alleged cruelty of entomological pursuits but a futile objection to the practical studies of natural history?

Because cruelty is an unnecessary infliction of suf-ering, when a person is fond of torturing or destroying God's creatures from mere wantonness, with no useful end in view; or when, if their death be useful and lawful, he has recourse to circuitous modes of killing them, where direct ones would answer equally well. In utility, the sportsman, from his primary object being amusement, must yield to the entomologist, who adds to the general stock of mental food, - often supplies hints for useful improvement in the arts and sciences,and the objects of whose pursuits, unlike that of the sportsman, are preserved, and may be applied to use for many years. Again : in proportion as we descend in the scale of being, the sensibility of objects that constitute it diminishes. The earth-worm, so far from being injured by cutting, thereby acquires an extension of existence.* Insensibility almost equally great may be found in the insect world. This might, indeed, be inferred a priori, since, Providence seems to have been more prodigal of insect life than of that of any other order of creatures, animalculae perhaps alone excepted. We abridge the spirit of this ingenious defence from the valuable Introduction to Entomology, by Kirby and Spence, who illustrate the position by observing, " It is not easy, in some parts of the year, to set foot on the ground without crushing these minute animals. * Can it be believed that the beneficent Creator, whose tender mercies are over all his works, would expose these helpless beings to such innumerable enemies and injuries, were they endued with the same sense of pain and irritability of nerve with the higher orders of animals?

" Instead, therefore, of believing and being grieved by the belief, that the insect we tread upon

* See Earthworm, page 203.

" In corporal sufferance finds a pang as great As when a giant dies," the very converse is nearer the truth. " Had a giant lost an arm or a leg," continue the authors just quoted, " or were a sword or spear run through his body, he would feel no great inclination for running about, dancing, or eating. Yet a tipula (crane-fly) will leave half its legs in the hands of an unlucky boy who has endeavoured to catch it, and will fly with as much agility and unconcern as if nothing had happened to it; and an insect impaled on a pin will often devour its prey with as much avidity as when at liberty. Were a giant eviscorated, his body divided in the middle, or his head cut off, it would be all over with him ; he would move no more ; he would be dead to the calls of hunger, or the emotions of fear, anger or love. Not so our insects: I have seen the common cockchaffer walk about with apparent indifference after some bird had nearly emptied its body of its viscera; a humble-bee will eat honey with greediness though deprived of its abdomen; and I myself lately saw an ant, which had been brought out of the nest by its comrades, walk when deprived of its head. The head of a wasp will attempt to bite after it is separated from the rest of the body; and the abdomen, under similar circumstances, if the finger be moved to it, will attempt to sting."