Gemmation. Summary, and in a Tethya, Merejkowsky, A. Z. Expt. viii. 1879-80; in Tetilla and Tethya, Salensky, Z. W. Z. xxxiii. 1880, pp. 470, 473; Lampe, A. N. 52 (1), p. 17; in Craniella, Vosmaer, 'Porifera,' p. 428, and Sollas, A. N. H. (5), ix. p. 158; in Tethya lyncurium, Deszo, A. M. A. xiv. 1879, pp. 633, 641; in Rinalda arctica, Merejkowsky, Mem. Imp. Akad. St. Petersburg, (7), xxvi. 1879, No. 7, p. 4. Cf. Keller, Z. W. Z. xxxiii. p. 341, and Schulze, Z. W. Z. xxx. p. 403.

Gemmules of Spongillidae, see p. 253; add Wierzejski, Archives Slaves de Biologie, i. 1886.

Brood buds of Oscarella (Halisarca) lobularis, Schulze, Z. A. ii. 1879; Id. SB. Ges Natforsch. Freunde, Berlin, 1885, p. 183.

Artificial propagation of Euspongia, Marenzeller, Verhandl. z. b. Ges. Wien, xxviii. 1878.

Colours of sponges, Krukenberg, Vergleich. Physiol. Studien (I), ii. p. 67; iii. p. 3; (2), iii. pp. 30, 36, 108; of Spongilla, pp. 251, 253, ante. Due to parasitic algae, Schulze, Z. W. Z. xxxiii. p. 25; Carter, A. N. H. (5), ii. pp. 163-5; Brandt, Mitth. Zool. Stat. Naples, iv. 1883, pp. 224-31.

Parasites of sponges, Carter, A. N. H. (5), ii. 1878; cf. Vosmaer, 'Porifera,' pp. 457-8.

Fossil Sponges, Zittel, Handbuch der Palaeontologie, Abth. i, Palaeozoologie, i. 1876-80, pp. 128-202; Hinde, Catalogue of the Fossil Sponges in the British Museum, 1883; with a good bibliography on p. 231; Id. Ph. Tr. 176, 1885.

Affinities of Porifera; see for most recent discussion, Heider on Oscarelta, Arb. Zool. Inst. Wien, vi, p. 41 of paper or p. 215 of vol.; Vosmaer, 'Porifera,' pp. 472-481; and for the late Prof. Balfour's views, his Comp. Embryology, i. p. 122; ii. p. 285; of the Myxospongiae (O/igosi/icina), von Lendenfeld, Z. A. viii. 1884; of the Monactinellidae (e.g. Suberitidae, &c), Id. Z. A. vii. 1884; cf. viii. p. 484; of Keratosa=- Ceratina Polejaeff, Challenger Reports, xi. p. 75 et seqq.