Teeth sharp in both sexes: skin smooth; but thickly studded with strong conical spines, intermixed with more numerous smaller ones, radiating at the base; one or three rows on the tail.

R. radiata, Don. Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 114. Mem. Brit. An. p. 170.


The following were those of the specimen described below. Entire length eighteen inches nine lines: length of the head (measured from the end of the snout to the spiracles) three inches two lines; of the tail (measured from the vent) nine inches three lines: breadth, across the pectorals, thirteen inches three lines.


{Form). General form similar to that of the last species: snout short and obtuse, projecting very little beyond the pectorals: teeth much larger than in the R. maculata, not so closely compacted, and terminating above in a sharper and longer point; from those of the R. clavata, they differ in being rather smaller at the base, more widely separate, and strongly pointed in both sexes: ground of the back smooth, but thickly studded with strong sharp hooked spines, arising from a conical furrowed base, intermixed with smaller ones, which spread out at bottom in a radiating or stellate manner; of the larger spines a row occupies the mesial ridge of the tail, and is continued along the back to behind the eyes; there are also two on each side of the centre of the back, one before the eyes, and two at the posterior angles of the same; the smaller radiating spines form a parallel and more numerous series on each side of the central row of larger ones, commencing at the middle of the back, and extending nearly to the extremity of the tail; (in Donovan's specimen these lateral rows appear to have been wanting;) they are also irregularly but thickly scattered over the wings of the pectorals, becoming smaller and more numerous towards the margins: the other characters resemble those of the last species. {Colours). Upper surface brown, with a slight reddish tinge; beneath, white.

Since publishing my Catalogue of British Vertebrata, I have seen a pair of this species, male and female, in the collection of Mr. Yarrell, who received them from the Frith of Forth. The same gentleman possesses a third specimen sent him by Dr. Johnston of Berwick. I am inclined, now, to regard it as a well-marked species, quite distinct from any of the foregoing ones, but perhaps not specifically different from the R. Rubus of Blainville*, of which it is considered as a variety by that author. Both sexes are equally thorny on their upper surface, the under surface being, in both, smooth. The male specimen above alluded to had the ventral appendages half the length of the tail. Donovans example of this species was caught on the north coast of Britain.

* Faun. Franc, p. 21.

(43). R. Miraletus, Don

Brit. Fish. vol. v. pl. 103. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 111. R. oculata, Flem. Brit. An. p. 172.

This is probably nothing more than the ocellated variety of the R. macu-lata already alluded to. As such it was regarded by Montagu*. Blain-ville, however, makes it the same as his R. Speculum †. Procured by Donovan in the London market, and supposed to have come from the coast of Sussex.

(44). Rough Ray, Penn

Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 85. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 115.

"Length from the nose to the tip of the tail two feet nine inches: the tail almost of the same length with the body. Nose very short: before each eye a large hooked spine, and behind each another, beset with lesser. Upper part of the body of a cinereous brown colour, mixed with white, and spotted with black; and entirely covered with small spines. On the tail three rows of great spines; all the rest of the tail irregularly beset with lesser. The fins, and under side of the body, equally rough with the upper. Teeth flat and rhomboidal." Penn.

This species was taken by Pennant in Loch Broom, in the shire of Ross. It is doubtful whether it be distinct from all those already described. Blainvitle appears to consider it as his R. Rubus, but the " flat rhomboidal teeth" seem rather at variance with the characters which he ascribes to those of that species.

(45). R. Cuvieri, Lacep

Hist. Nat. des Poiss. torn. i. p. 141. pl. 7. f. 1. Neill in Wern. Mem. vol. i. p. 554. Flem. Brit. An. p. 172. Cuvier Ray, Penn. Brit. Zool. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 124.

This supposed species, which was first noticed by Lacepede, was obtained by Mr. Neill, in a single instance, on the Scottish coast in 1808. Its distinguishing character consists in the first dorsal fin being on the middle of the back. Cuvier ‡:, however, regards it as nothing more than an accidental variety, or rather monstrosity, observed by him in more than one species. Blainville§ speaks with confidence as to Lac6pede's fish being nothing more than a variety of the R. clavata. As tending to confirm this opinion, it is worth noticing that Mr. NeilPs specimen is said to have been obtained from among a large cargo of Thorn-Backs.

(3. Trygon, Adam).