Depth one-third of the entire length: lateral line bending slightly downwards: caudal crescent-shaped.

C. Gibelio, Gmel. Linn. torn. i. part iii. p. 1417. Block, Ichth. pl. 12. Flem. Brit. An. p. 185. Carassius, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 249. Crucian, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 364. pl. 72. no. 171. Bowd. Brit. fr. wat. Fish. Draw. no. 23. Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 311. Gibele, Penn. Brit. Zool. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 480. pl. 83. La Gibele, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 271.

* The number of scales in the lateral line, and the number of rows of scales in the depth, are characters of some importance in distinguishing the different species of Cyprinidoe. They are here adopted from Junne, and I shall state, nearly in the words of that author, the exact method in which they are computed. In estimating the number of scales in the lateral line, the reckoning is confined to those scales which are marked with the tube-like projection, the small irregular scales at the insertion of the caudal being neglected. The number of rows in the depth is taken at the deepest part of the body, or in a line from the first rays of the dorsal fin to the base of the ventral. Such a line, however, being interrupted near the middle by the lateral line, it is divided into two parts, the dorsal portion containing the number of scales above the lateral line, the ventral portion the number below it. Moreover, one of the scales themselves being always divided by the lateral line, and this line serving as the boundary of the two portions, it follows that half a scale is given each way to be added to the number of entire scales that appear in these portions respectively. It may be further stated that the curved tile-like scale, which appears on the ridge of the back in most of the fish belonging to this family, being common to both sides, is not taken into the account; neither are the small incomplete irregular scales which may be often observed at the base of the rays of the dorsal fin. In like manner, the numerous small scales which appear at the bottom of the abdomen, and which could not be counted with precision, are omitted; the reckoning at this point commencing with the first entire scale above the long scale which is placed at the base of the ventral fin. See Jurine's memoir on the Fish of the Lake of Geneva, contained in the Mem. de la Soc. de Phys. et d'Hist. Nat. de Geneve, torn. iii. part i. pp. 143, 144.

† In all the Cyprinidoe, the last two rays in the dorsal and anal fins will be found to spring from one root. In computing the fin-ray formula they may be reckoned either as one or two. I have considered them as two.


From ten to twelve inches, or more.


(Form). Back moderately elevated, the dorsal line more convex than the ventral: greatest depth one-third of the entire length: head about one-fifth: profile falling very regularly, and forming one continuous curve with the line of the back: snout short, and rather obtuse; jaws nearly equal, the lower one a little the longest when the mouth is open; gape rather small: eyes small: opercle marked with radiating striae: lateral line descending in a gentle curve a little below the middle: scales large; number in the lateral line thirty-four; in the depth twelve, six and a half above, and five and a half below, the lateral line: dorsal much as in the last species; the first two rays bony; the first very short; the second strong and serrated, but the serratures very fine compared with those of the same ray in the Carp: anal short, also with the first two rays bony; the first extremely short; this fin terminating a little beyond the termination of the dorsal: caudal forked; the depth of the fork about one-third of its length: pectorals and ventrals much as in the Carp; the latter nearly in a line with the second bony ray of the dorsal.

D. 2/18; A. 2/7; C. 19, and some short; P. 14; V. 9.

Number of vertebras (according to Mr. Yarrell) thirty. (Colours). Back, and sides above the lateral line, olive-brown; lower part of the sides yellow, becoming paler on the belly; the whole tinged with a bright golden lustre: irides golden: cheeks and gill-covers bright golden yellow: dorsal fin olivaceous; caudal the same, tinged with orange-yellow; anal, pectorals, and ventrals, bright orange-red.

Supposed to be a naturalized species in this country, but not exactly known when it was introduced. Found in some of the ponds about London, as well as in other parts of England. Usual weight about half a pound: has been known, however, to weigh upwards of two pounds. Said to spawn in April or May. Food, aquatic plants and worms. Is very tenacious of life.

(15). C. Carassius, Linn

Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 526. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 11. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 108. Le Carreau ou Carrassin, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 271.

Mr. Yarrell has reason to believe that he has more than once received this species from the Thames. Its claims, however, to a place in the British Fauna are not fully established. By Turton, it was probably confounded with the C. Gihelio, from which it may be distinguished by the greater depth of the body, straight lateral line, and nearly even caudal. It has also more rays in the dorsal and anal fins.