Body deep: jaws equal: dorsal with twelve rays: irides, and all the fins, red.

C. Rutilus, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 529. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 2. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. iii. pl. 67. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 108. Leuciscus Rutilus, Flem. Brit. An. p. 188. Roach, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 262. tab. Q. 10. f. 5. Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 365. Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 482. Bowd. Brit. fr. wat. Fish. Draw. no. 3. Yarr. Brit. Fish. vol. i. p. 348. La Rosse, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 275.


From twelve to fifteen inches.


(Form). Oval; the back much elevated, and sharply ridged: greatest depth at the commencement of the dorsal fin, about one-third of the length, excluding caudal: greatest thickness not twice and a half in the depth: dorsal line very convex, falling gradually to the nape, whence the profile falls less obliquely and in nearly a straight line, causing a slight depression at the part just mentioned: head contained about four times and three-quarters in the whole length, caudal excluded: mouth small: jaws equal: eyes moderate; the distance between equal to twice and a half their diameter: lateral line commencing at the upper part of the opercle, and taking a descending course below the middle, but not quite so low as two-thirds of the depth: head and gill-covers smooth and naked: scales on the body broad, marked with numerous very fine circular concentric striae, and with a few deeper and more distinct lines radiating anteriorly and posteriorly; number in the lateral line forty-three; above it seven and a half; beneath three and a half: dorsal commencing a very little behind the middle point between the end of the snout and the base of the caudal; its greatest height equalling half the depth; its length nearly the same; first ray only one-third the length of the second, which is longest; third and succeeding rays gradually decreasing; all except the first two branched; the last two from one root: anal commencing a little beyond the termination of the dorsal; of a similar form; second ray longest; all the rays except the first branched; last two from one root: caudal deeply forked: pectorals rather more than three-fourths of the length of the head; first ray longest; all the rays except the first branched: ventrals in a line with the commencement of the dorsal, about equal to the pectorals, rounded; first ray simple; the others branched; in their axilla a triangular pointed scale:

* Vol. xiv. p. .587.

B. 3; D. 12; A. 13; C. 19, and 4 or 6 short ones; P. 16; V. 9.

(Colours). Upper part of the head and back dusky green, with blue reflections; sides and belly silvery: cheeks and gill-covers silvery white: dorsal and caudal dusky, tinged with red; anal, pectorals, and ventrals, bright red: irides reddish yellow.

Common in lakes and still deep rivers throughout the country. Keeps in large shoals. Usual weight from a pound to a pound and a half: sometimes, however, exceeding two, or even three, pounds. Spawns in May or June, at which season the scales are rough to the touch: is very prolific. Food, worms and aquatic vegetables.