(1. Fringilla., Cuv).

Head and nape grayish blue: back and scapulars chestnut brown, tinged with olive; rump greenish.

F. Ccelebs, Temm. Man. d'Orn. torn. I. p. 357. Chaffinch, Mont. Orn. Diet. Selb. Illust. vol. I. p. 303. pl. 54. f. 4. & 4*. Bew. Brit. Birds, vol. I. p. 188.


Entire length five inches eleven lines: length of the bill (from the forehead) five lines, (from the gape) six lines and a half; of the tarsus nine lines; of the tail two inches seven lines; from the carpus to the end of the wing three inches three lines: breadth, wings extended, ten inches.


(Male in Spring). Forehead black; crown of the head, and nape, deep grayish blue: back and scapulars chestnut brown, with a tinge of olive-green; rump greenish yellow: cheeks, throat, and neck, reddish brown; breast and lianks the same, but somewhat paler; lower part of the abdomen white: lesser wing-coverts white; those of the primary quills, and the bastard wing, entirely black; secondary coverts black, tipped with primrose-yellow: the three first quills black, edged externally with yellowish white; the rest of the primaries, and all the secondaries, with a white spot at the base, with part of the inner web white, and with a portion of the outer web edged with pale yellow: the two middle tail-feathers ash-gray; the others black; the two outer ones on each side having a large white spot on the inner web: bill bluish; the tip black: feet brown. In Winter, the colours are paler; and the feathers on all the upper and under parts tipped with ash-gray. (Female). Head, nape, back, and scapulars, pale olive-green, tinged with cinereous brown: cheeks, and under parts, cinereous white: the transverse bars on the wings not so distinct as in the male bird: bill yellowish gray. Obs. This species is subject to much variation of plumage, especially about the wings, which are occasionally almost entirely white. (Egg). Pale purplish white, sparingly streaked and spotted with red brown: long. diam. nine lines and a half; trans, diam. seven lines.

* See some remarks on this subject by Mr Yarrell, in Zool. Journ. vol. in. p. 498.

Common throughout the country. In song from the first week in February, to the end of June, or beginning of July. Nest placed against the side of a tree, or in the forked branch of a bush; constructed principally of moss, elegantly studded on the outside with lichens and wool, and lined with feathers and hair. Eggs four or five in number; laid about the third week in April. Collects in flocks, at the approach of Winter.