S. Angelus, Cuv. Reg. An. torn. 11. p. 394. Blainv. Faun. Frang. p. 53. S. vulgaris, Mem. Brit. An. p. 169. Squatina, Will. Hist. Pise. p. 79. tab. D. 3. Squalus Squatina, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. 1. p. 398. Bloch, Ichth. pl. 116. Don. Brit. Fish. vol. 1. pl. 17. Turt. Brit. Faun. p. 114. Shaw, Nat. Misc. vol. xxi. pl. 906. Angel-Fish, Penn. Brit. Zool. vol. iii. p. 98. pl. 12*. Angel Shark, Id. (Edit. 1812). vol. iii. p. 130. pl. 15.


From five to seven, sometimes eight, feet.


{Form). Broad and depressed anteriorly, elongated and tapering behind: upper part of the body convex; lower part flat: greatest breadth in the region of the pectorals, equalling, those fins being excluded, not quite one-fourth of the entire length; being included, more than half of the same: head nearly round, broader than the body, from which it is separated by a deepish notch on each side: mouth large, terminal, transverse: jaws but little bent, and nearly of equal length: teeth numerous, in five rows above and below, broad at the base, each terminating upwards in a sharp slender point: nostrils almost at the margin of the upper lip, covered by a membrane terminating in two filaments; between the nostrils the snout is slightly notched: eyes on the upper part of the head, very small, not half the size of the large temporal orifices, which last are of a lunulate form, the horns of the crescent being directed backwards: branchial openings rather small, situate on each side of the neck, between the head and the trunk: skin very rough, covered with numerous small prickly tubercles; some larger tubercles of a similar nature above the eyes, and along the mesial line of the back: two dorsals, placed very much behind on the upper part of the tail; both small, and nearly of the same size: caudal large, obliquely bifurcated, the upper lobe being a little the longest: no anal: pectorals very large, attached horizontally, broadest at their posterior margin, projecting forwards on each side of the neck in the form of an acute shoulder: vent-rals of a somewhat similar form, but smaller. Obs. Cuvier and Fleming describe this species as having the pectorals armed with short curved spines near their margins. In the few specimens which I have examined they were not present. Probably, as in the family of the Rays, they are merely a sexual character. (Colours). Upper parts more or less deep gray: lower parts dirty white.

* Nat. Hist, of Yarm. p. 17.

A common and very voracious species, preying upon other fish. Keeps near the bottom. Attains to a large size. Pennant mentions having seen them of near an hundred weight. According to Bloch, produces in the Spring and Autumn from seven to eight young. On some parts of the coast is called a Monk-Fish; on others, a Kingstone.

(41). Lewis, Couch In Linn

Trans, vol. xiv. p. 90.

Under the above name, Mr. Couch notices a fish, which he states is not unfrequently taken with a line on the coast of Cornwall, and which bears some resemblance to the Squatina Angelus, but which he seems disposed to consider as a distinct species. The following is his description:

" Somewhat smaller than the Monk. Head large, flat, the jaws of equal length, forming a wide mouth; the upper jaw falls in somewhat at the middle, so that at this part the lower jaw seems a little the longest; both are armed with several rows of sharp teeth; the tongue is small. The head is joined to the body by something which resembles a neck; the body is flat so far back as the ventral fins, beyond these it is round: the pectoral and ventral fins are very large; the former are flat, and both have near their extremities a number of spines. The two dorsal fins are placed far behind: the lohes of the tail are equal and lunated. There are five spiracula: the eyes are very small, and the nictitating membrane, which is of the colour of the common skin, contracts over the eye, leaving a linear pupil. The body is slightly rough, of a sandy brown colour: the under parts white. It is about five feet long, and keeps near the bottom".

Judging from the above description, I must confess I hardly see in what respects it differs from the last species.

(6). PRISTIS, Lath.

(42). P. Antiquorum, Lath, In Linn

Trans, vol. ii. p. 277. pl. 26. f. 1. (Rostrum). Cuv. Reg. An. torn. ii. p. 395. Squalus Pristis, Linn. Syst. Nat. torn. i. p. 401. Pristibatis antiquorum, Blainv. Faun. Franc, p. 50.

According to the late Dr. Walker*, this species has been found sometimes in Loch Long. It does not appear, however, to have been noticed in our seas by any other naturalist. It is distinguished from some other allied species by the rostral spines not exceeding in number from eighteen to twenty-four on each side. It is found in various parts of the Ocean, as well as in the Mediterranean. Attains to the length of from twelve to fifteen feet.

* On the authority of Dr. Fleming. Sec Brit. An. p. 164.