This section is from the book "A Practical Treatise On The Joints Made And Used By Builders", by Wyvill J. Christy. Also available from Amazon: Practical treatise on the joints made and used by builders.
This is effected by drilling a hole with a stone drill and working it larger at the back to prevent the plug from drawing. The proper-sized screws selected for fixing the work are then carefully covered with black lead and dusted over with the same in the state of dry powder; and their heads being set in a piece of plastic clay in such a way that the stems enter the hole, the clay is worked round the outside to form a luting with an opening at the top. A ladleful of molten lead is then taken and run into the hole, and when set the clay is removed, the lead chipped off flush with the face, and the screws withdrawn with a screwdriver, leaving perfect threads in the plug by which they can be driven in again at pleasure with the work or fitting attached. Wood frames are thus often secured to stone reveals and jambs.
Putty Joint is made in connecting a lead service pipe with a water-closet basin. The end of the pipe is cut to fit the arm of the basin, and after painting it and the inside of the arm as well, the pipe is inserted and the joint carefully stopped and surrounded with red cement, described under Mange Joint in Section VII. A strip of canvas, about 3 in. wide and 3 ft. long, is then saturated with paint and bound round over the joint so as to completely and tightly envelop it, and this is secured in place by winding closely around it from one end of the joint to the other a piece of stout string properly secured and fastened off at both ends, the whole being painted over and left undisturbed to harden. The joint between the basin of a pan closet and the apparatus is made with common glazier's putty, but in the case of a Bramah red lead is used.
This is formed by securing in a raglet, described in Section III., the edge of a piece of lead by means of lead wedges or bats placed about 8 in. apart and tightly driven in. A stopping and pointing of cement or mastic finishes the joint by filling up the groove. Sometimes when the raglet is situated on the top of a blocking course or otherwise favourably for the operation, molten lead is run into the groove instead, in which case the joint is rendered tighter by setting up the lead when cold with a caulking iron to counteract the effects of its contraction. When treated in this manner the raglet must be cut rather wider, and the apron or flashing is said to be burnt in.
Ribbon Joint is a copper-bit joint made with fine solder so disposed and left round the junction of the two pieces as to resemble a smooth ring about 1 in. wide and 3/16 in. thick.
Roll Joint is made when two sheets of lead are connected on domes, or at the intersection of roof planes, or on a terrace or flat, etc, in the direction of the fall or slope. A wood roll or core, about 2 in. square, with its upper surface planed and rounded off and lower edges chamfered, is nailed on the boarding or otherwise secured to the surface to be covered, after which the two sheets are rolled out and dressed flat, their edges planed straight, and then one edge is dressed closely down on the roll reaching to its top, and the other dressed and close hammered again upon that, so as to be outside and surround the roll three-quarters of its girth, as in Fig. 146. The turning down is so arranged that the outside edge is turned away from the most exposed quarter. This joint is impervious to water so long as it does not reach the top of the roll. In other cases the roll is made without the wood core, the edges of the lead being planed straight and set up against one another, the up-stands being unequal, or about 2½ in. and 3½ in. respectively. The highest edge is first bent down over the lowest, and then both are turned down together, as in Fig. 147, so as to form a hollow roll. In order to keep the roll down in its place, clips, latchets, or tingles, which are pieces of lead about 5 in. by 3 in., are nailed to the boarding at intervals of 3 ft. or thereabouts in sinkings made for the purpose, so that the ends nailed down are flush with the surface whilst the other ends stand up between the set-up edges of the sheets so as to admit of being turned over and down with them in forming the roll, as shown in Fig. 144, which represents the same joint in another of its many slightly varying forms.