"When a ceiling is required, the joists to support it are generally notched and nailed to the under side of the tie beam, as shown in Figs. 323 to 329.

Ceiling joists attached to roofs are similar to those fixed below floors, as described at p. 141.

The Eaves are the lower edges of the slopes of a roof. They may project over the walls, as in Figs. 319, 325; or they may finish upon an iron gutter on the top of the wall, as in Fig. 452; or upon a lead gutter formed behind a blocking course, or a parapet wall, as in Figs. 469, 476.

When the eaves project considerably, as in Fig. 325, "Planceer pieces" (y) may be fixed to support the Soffit or Planceer, which is formed either by boarding the under sides of the joists, or by lathing and plastering them as shown.

In some cases the soffit is supported by Eaves corbels, Cantilevers, or Consoles (as dotted at c), built into the wall.

A Fascia Board (f) is fixed to the ends of the rafters, and to it the gutter is attached. When the eaves project only a few inches, the Planceer pieces (y) become unnecessary, and the roof is finished as in Fig. 3 19.