Whitewash is a mixture of any common white fat lime with water. It is used for common walls and ceilings which have to be whitened frequently, and for sanitary purposes.

Wliitening is a mixture of whiting and size, used for whitening ceilings and inside walls. It will not stand the weather.

Colouring for very common work is made by mixing naturally-coloured earths, such as ochres, with whitewash.

Distemper is made with whiting and size. Any colouring matter may be added, being first ground in water and added to the whiting. Sometimes a little alum and soft soap are substituted for the size.

It is used for colouring walls and whitening ceilings; but is not fit for outdoor work, as it will not stand the weather.

Distemper is generally laid on cold, and at about the consistency of trembling jelly.

Not more than two coats are required - the first should be thin, and should contain a double quantity of size.

White lead is sometimes substituted for the whiting to produce a smoother surface; and for outside work boiled oil is sometimes added to ordinary distemper to make it weather better.

Pugging is a coat of coarse stuff about 2 or 3 inches thick laid on boards fixed between the joists of a floor. It is intended to prevent sounds and smells from passing from one room to the other (see Part I.), but is rather apt to lead to decay in the woodwork.

Scagliola is chiefly used for imitation marble pilasters and columns.

For the latter a "cradle " is first formed of wood, lathed over, and "pricked up" with lime and hair mortar.

After this has set and is quite dry it is covered with a floated coat consisting of plaster of Paris mixed with various colouring matters in a solution of glue or isinglass, to give greater solidity and to prevent the plaster of Paris from setting too quickly. When the surface is thoroughly hard, it is rubbed with pumice stone, being kept damp and clean with a wet sponge; it is then rubbed with tripoli and charcoal, then polished with a felt rubber dipped in tripoli and oil, and lastly finished by means of a piece of felt dipped in oil only.

This substance has been to a great extent superseded by the use of Keene's and similar cements. (See Part III.)

Arrises, or sharp corners of plastered walls, require to be of extra strength, or protected in some way from being chipped and injured.

Angle, Staves are substantial beads or cylinders of wood plugged to the salient angles of the walls, and splayed so as to receive the plaster on each side. They thus protect the angle of the wall from injury.

Cement Angles are often formed instead of angle staves. The angle of the wall, including a strip of 4 or 6 inches wide on each side, is rendered in cement, and is consequently harder and more able to withstand a blow than if finished in plaster. The corner of the wall or of the cement covering may with advantage be rounded.

Cement Staff Beads or Quoin-leads are similar in form to those in wood, described at page 73, and are adopted in order to avoid an arris, and to answer the same purpose as angle staves.