This section is from the book "A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction Vol4: Plumbing And Gas-Fitting, Heating And Ventilation, Painting And Decorating, Estimating And Calculating Quantities", by The Colliery Engineer Co. Also available from Amazon: A Treatise On Architecture And Building Construction.
65. Turpentine is the oleoresin exuding from any one of several coniferous trees; also the semifluid resin of the terebinth or turpentine tree-Pistacia Terebinthus.
The principal varieties of turpentine are the following: Aleppo turpentine, from the Aleppo pine. American turpentine, from the long-leaved pine.
Bordeaux turpentine, from the seaside pine. Canadian turpentine, from the balsam fir. Carolina turpentine, from the long-leaved pine. Carpathian turpentine, from the Swiss pine. Chio or Chian turpentine, from the turpentine tree. German turpentine, from the Scotch pine. Hungarian turpentine, from the Mugho pine. Strasburg turpentine, from the European silver fir. Syrian turpentine, from the pistachio-nut tree. Venice turpentine, from the European larch. White turpentine, from the long-leaved pine.
06. The process of saving and collecting the liquid is, in nearly all cases, similar. A hollow is cut in the tree a few inches from the ground, and bark, for about 18 inches above it, removed. The turpentine then trickles down into vessels. The incisions are made about the end of March and the turpentine continues to run throughout the vegetative season. These turpentines have in general character much in common, being oleoresins, varying slightly in color, consistency, and smell.
Imported in barrels of 2 or. 2 1/2 hundredweight, turpentine has the appearance and consistency of honey. The residuum, after the distillation of the oil or spirits of turpentine, is the common resin, or rosin, of commerce.
67. Oil of turpentine is obtained by distilling with water, in an ordinary copper still, turpentine previously melted and strained. The distilled product is colorless, limpid, very fluid, and of a very peculiar smell. The rectified oil, improperly called spirits of turpentine, is preferable on account of being thinner and more free from resin. When colored by heat or otherwise, oil of turpentine may be bleached by agitating some lime powder in it. The ordinary use of this oil is to thin oil paints, to flatten white and other colors, or to remove superfluous color in graining. It prevents paint, however, from bearing out, and when used alone, will not fix the paint on the surface to which it is applied.