This section is from the book "The Building Trades Pocketbook", by International Correspondence Schools. Also available from Amazon: Building Trades Pocketbook: a Handy Manual of reference on Building Construction.
These have been condemned by health boards and sanitary authorities for the past 20 years or more, and should never be used; any old on covered should be replaced by closets of modern construction.
Hoppers or washdown closets are designated as short or long hoppers, according as their traps are above or below the floor. Long hoppers are only used where there is danger of the trap being frozen, in which case the traps are placed below frost level. A long hopper is shown in Fig. 4, while Fig. 5 illustrates a short hopper. They can be had in porcelain, glazed earthenware, or cast iron painted or enameled. Short hoppers are fitted with a flushing tank overhead; long hoppers are usually fitted with a valve below frost level.
They consist of a basin and trap, both above the floor. They differ from hopper closets in that the water in the basin is separate from that in the trap, as shown in Fig. 6. They are generally used on good common work, and are thoroughly sanitary; but, being somewhat noisy, are not so desirable as siphon closets for dwellings.
They have their contents removed by siphonage through a long crooked outlet, the water in the basin being employed as a trap. They are almost noiseless in operation. There are many kinds of these closets on the market but the most reliable are the simple siphon-jet arrangements with flushing rim, as shown in accompanying figure. Those having a low-down tank are the most silent in action. Pneumatic siphon-jet closets are too complicated to be reliable. Fig. 7 shows the closet in action; the dotted lines show the water channels for the flush.
The dimensions of closets vary considerably; the following, however, is good practice:
Width of bowl over all...........................
Height from seat to floor........................
Depth from wall to front of seat...........
or the "roughing-in" dimensions, as they are called - vary with nearly every closet.
Latrines are used chiefly for prisons, factories, etc., and are set up in ranges of two or more, partitions being placed between each latrine, about 24 in. apart. The waste-pipe section is usually 5 or 6 in. in diameter, and the flush pipe 3 or 4 in. They are flushed by a large tank, located about 6 ft. above the seat, the flush pipe being connect, the bottom of the latrines.