Consider a transformer built for transformation between 1,000 and 100 volts. Suppose the resistance- and reactance-E. M. F.'s given are 2 percent and 7 per cent respectively. Then the corresponding voltages when the transformer delivers full-load current, are 2 and 7 volts or 20 and 70 volts according as the line whose drop is required is connected to the low-voltage or high-voltage terminals. These values, 2 - 7 and 20 - 70, hold, no matter at what voltage the trans-

When the required values cannot be obtained from the makers, they may be measured. Measure the resistance of both coils. If the line to be calculated is attached to the high-voltage terminals of the transformer, the equivalent resistance is that of the high-voltage coil, plus the resistance obtained by increasing in the square of the ratio of transformation the measured resistance of the low-voltage coil. That is, if the ratio of transformation is 10, the equivalent resistance referred to the high-voltage circuit is the resistance of the high-voltage coil, plus 100 times that of the low-voltage coil. This equivalent resistance multiplies by the high-voltage current gives the transformer resistance-volts referred to the high-voltage circuit. Similarly, the equivalent resistance referred to the low-voltage circuit is the resistance of the low-voltage coil, plus that of the high-voltage coil reduced in the square of the ratio of transformation. It follows, of course, from this, that the values of the resistance-volts referred to the two circuits bear to each other the ratio of transformation. To obtain the reactance-volts shortcircuit one coil of the transformer and measure the voltage necessary to force through the other coil its normal current at normal frequency. The result is, nearly enough, the reactance-volts. It makes the difference which coil is short-circuited, as the results obtained in one case will bear to those in the other the ratio of transformation. If a close value is desired, subtract from the square of the voltage reading the square of the resistance-volts, and take the square root of the difference as the reactance-volts.

&9632; former is operated, since they depend only upon the strength of current, providing it is of the normal frequency. If any other than the full-load current is drawn from the transformer, the reactance- and resistance-volts will be such a proportion of the values given above as the current flowing is of the full-load current. It may be noted, in passing, that when the resistance- and reactance-volts of a transformer are known, its regulation may be determined by making use of the chart in the same way as for a line having resistance and reactance.

As an illustration of the method of calculating the drop in a line and transformer, and also of the use of table and chart in calculating low-voltage mains, the following example is given:


A single-phase induction motor is to be supplied with 20 amperes at 200 volts; alternations, 7,200 per minute; power factor, .78. The distance from transformer to motor is 150 feet, and the line is No. 5 wire, 6 inches between centers of conductors. The transformer reduces in the ratio 2,000, has a capacity of 25 amperes at 200 volts, and, when delivering this current and voltage, its resistance-E. M. F. is 2.5 per cent, its reactance-E. M. F. 5 per cent. Find the drop.

The reactance of 1,000 feet of circuit consisting of two No. 5 wires, 6 inches apart, is .204. The reactance-volts therefore are

150 .204 X -------- X 20 = .61 volts.


The resistance-volts are

.627 X 150 X 20 = 1.88 volts.


At 25 amperes, the resistance-volts of the transformer are 2.5 per cent of 200, or 5 volts. At 20 amperes, they are 20/25 of this, or 4 volts.

Similarly, the transformer reactance-volts at 25 amperes are 10, and at 20 amperes are 8 volts. The combined reactance-volts of transformer and line are 8 + .61 = 8.61, which is 4.3 per cent of the 200 volts to be delivered. The combined resistance-volts are 1.88 + 4, or 5.88, which is 2.94 per cent of the E. M. F. to be delivered. Combining these quantities on the chart with a power factor of .78, the drop is 5 per cent of the delivered E. M. F. or 5/ 105 = 4.8 per cent of the impressed E. M. F. The transformer must be supplied with 2,000/ .952 = 2,100 volts, in order that 200 volts shall be delivered to the motor.

Table X (page 47) is made out for 7,200 alternations, but will answer for any other number if the values for reactance be changed in direct proportion to the change in alternations. For instance, for 16,000 alternations, multiply the reactances given by 16,600/ 7,200.

For other distances between centers of conductors, interpolate the values given in the table. As the reactance values for different sizes of wire change by a constant amount, the table can, if desired, be readily extended for larger or smaller conductors.

The table is based on the assumption of sine currents, and

E. M. F.'s. The best practice of to-day produces machines which so closely approximate this condition that results obtained by the above methods are well within the limits of practical requirements. Polyphase Circuits. So far, single-phase circuits only have been dealt with. A simple extension of the methods given above adapts them to the calculation of polyphase circuits. A four-wire quarter-phase (two-phase) transmission may, so far as loss and regulation are concerned, be replaced by two single-phase circuits identical (as to size of wire, distance between wires, current, and E. M. F.) with the two circuits of the quarter-phase transmission, provided that in both cases there is no inductive interaction between circuits. Therefore, to calculate a four-wire, quarter-phase transmission, compute the single-phase circuit required to transmit one-half the power at the same voltage. The quarter-phase transmission will require two such circuits.

A three-wire, three-phase transmission, of which the conductors are symmetrically related, may, so far as loss and regulation are concerned, be replaced by two single-phase circuits having no inductive interaction, and identical with the three-phase line as to size, wire, and distance between wires. Therefore, to calculate a three-phase transmission, calculate a single-phase circuit to carry one -half the load at the same voltage. The three-phase transmission will require three wires of the size and distance between centers as obtained for the single-phase. A three-wire, two-phase transmission may be calculated exactly as regards loss, and approximately as regards drop, in the same way as for three-phase. It is possible to exactly calculate the drop, but this involves a more complicated method than the approximate one. The error by this approximate method is generally small. It is possible, also, to get a somewhat less drop and loss with the same copper by proportioning the cross-section of the middle and outside wires of a three-wire, quarter-phase circuit to the currents they carry, instead of using three wires of the same size. The advantage, of course, is not great, and it will not be considered here.