This section is from the book "Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry, And Building", by James C. et al. Also available from Amazon: Cyclopedia Of Architecture, Carpentry And Building.
In shunt lamps, the carbons are held apart before the current is turned on, and the circuit is closed through a solenoid connected in across the gap so formed. All of the current must pass through this coil at first, and the plunger of the solenoid is arranged to draw the carbons together, thus starting the arc. The pull of the solenoid and that of the springs are adjusted to maintain the arc at its proper length.
Such lamps have the disadvantage of a high resistance at the start - 450 ohms or more -and are difficult to start on series circuits, due to the high voltage required. They tend to maintain a constant voltage at the arc, but do not aid the dynamo in its regulation, so that the arcs are liable to be a little unsteady.