This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol5", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
P.C. Values. - The specified " P.C." values are the net cost of the articles at the manufacturers in England, unless otherwise described.
Water shall be clean and free from salt.
Sand shall be clean, sharp, coarse, virgin pit, free from loam, impurities, or salt.
Sand for the cement rendering shall be well washed.
Lime shall be fresh burned stone, free from core.
Cement shall be "Portland," of English manufacture, and of an approved brand; and shall weigh 112 lbs. to the imperial bushel, and be capable of bearing a strain of 300 lbs. to the square inch on a moulded briquette seven days old, set in water. No cement shall be opened out except in the presence of the overseer.1
Concrete for foundations shall be composed of one part cement to two parts sand and six parts approved stone, broken to pass through a 2-inch ring, and screened; or in lieu of the stone, clean, washed, approved gravel may be used. It shall be mixed on a water-tight sheltered board, watered through a fine "rose" nozzle, turned over once dry and twice wet, and laid in and rammed.
Concrete for floors, door steps, and hearths shall be composed of one part cement to two parts sand and four parts stone, broken to pass through a 1 1/2-inch ring, or gravel, and mixed, etc., as previously described.
Coke concrete shall be composed of one part cement to two parts sand and three parts breeze, or coke, broken to pass through a 1 1/2-inch ring. The coke shall be washed free of dust. The cement and sand shall be first thoroughly mixed dry, the coke then added, and all turned over once dry and twice wet, and as previously described for other concrete, and laid in position.
Cement rendering for floors shall be composed of one part cement and two parts sand, and for walls one part cement and four parts sand, and used fresh.
Cement mortar shall be of one part cement to four parts sand, and used fresh.
Lime mortar shall be, by measure, of one part lime and two parts sand.
The coarse stuff shall be of 1/3 slacked and sieved lime, and 2/3 sand, with 9 lbs. of hair to each cubic yard of stuff. Fine stuff \ lime and \ sand. Gauged stuff shall be 4/5 fine stuff and i plaster.
Stucco shall be 3/4 fine stuff and \ fine white sand.
Hair shall be best strong cow hair, long, well beaten, and free from grease.
Laths shall be stout split jarrah.
Damp-proof course shall be composed of " rock bitumen " and sand, or of approved asphalt.
Drain pipes shall be glazed earthenware socket pipes of clean bore, with proper junctions, bends, and special pieces, laid to a grade of not less than 1 in 144, unless otherwise described, jointed in puddled clay and pointed in cement.
Stone shall be good, hard, solid, flat-bedded; the best procurable within ... miles of the building site. Stones shall be large in size, and laid on their
Outline Specification (for Western Australian Work) 197 natural beds, and well wetted before being set in the work.
Bricks shall be of the best description, square, hard burned, in size not exceeding 9 by 4 1/2 by 3 inches. Soft, unsound, ill burned, or broken bricks shall not be delivered on the works. The bricks for facing the external walls shall be picked of an even colour. Fire-clay bricks shall be of the best "Staffordshire," or of an equal manufacture.
The carpenter's work shall be executed in jarrah timber, unless otherwise specified, of the best quality, die square, free from heart wood or other defects. The Joinery shall be of jarrah, unless otherwise specified, free from heart wood, shakes, sap, or other defects, and thoroughly seasoned. Deals for joinery shall be of yellow Baltic or American pine, free from sap, shakes, large or dead knots, or other defects. All timber shall be obtained before the expiration of one-fifth of the contract time, and stacked upon the ground. All sizes figured or specified are the finished sizes in work.
Nails shall be strong wire, and in length equal to 2 1/2 times the thickness of the first board or timber through which they are driven; and for lapped boards or timbers the nails shall be as last with the thickness of the second timber added to the length. Spikes shall be stout wire, in length equal to twice the thickness of the first timber through which they are driven.
Glue shall be of the best "Scotch."
Castings shall be of good grey iron mixed with a proper proportion of scrap; and shall be clean, sharp, free from air bubbles and other defects.
Bolts, nuts, washers, straps, and all other wrought iron shall be of B.B. Crown, or other approved quality. Bolts not otherwise specified shall have square heads and nuts with washers; the threads shall be clean cut, and of Whitworth's standard. All the wrought ironwork shall be heated and dipped while hot into boiled linseed oil.
All the ironmongery shall be of the best quality and of an approved manufacture, and any which is specified to be of a particular make shall be ordered by the contractor from the manufacturer within one week of the signing of the contract, and no substitutes of other manufacture will be accepted.
The galvanised iron shall be of English manufacture, and of an approved brand, and free from all defects.
The galvanised corrugated iron for roof covering shall be No. 24 B.W.G.
The galvanised iron for eaves guttering, rain-water down pipes, and cappings shall be No. 24 B.W.G.
The ridge and hip cappings shall be 16 inches wide with roll, and 3-inch edgings added of 4 lbs. lead.
The air gratings on outside of walls shall be galvanised cast iron, and on the inside of walls galvanised cast iron, 9 by 6 inches, or plaster panels.
Zinc shall be No. 12 malleable, weighing 18 ounces per superficial foot; and the lead shall be milled, weighing 5 lbs. per superficial foot, unless otherwise specified.
The paint shall be composed of genuine white lead or zinc, with linseed oil, turpentine, and driers in proper proportions, and finished to selected colours and tints. Raw oil shall be used for the inside work, and boiled oil for the outside. The putty shall be of the best London whiting, free from grit, mixed with linseed oil.
Glass shall be 26 ounces, "seconds" quality, unless otherwise specified.