This section is from the book "Modern Buildings, Their Planning, Construction And Equipment Vol6", by G. A. T. Middleton. Also available from Amazon: Modern Buildings.
The latter offer a great advantage where many horses are kept and where as little time as possible is disposed to the cleaning of their stalls. The attendant may take a number of these portable mangers to the washing place, and swill them out in very little time. These one-division mangers are useful where the food is served all chopped up in a mash. The small circular pan is for the reception of rock salt, which keeps the horse interested by turning it over and licking it, so arresting any tendency which he might otherwise have to crib-biting. It must be borne in mind that horses of a heavy type, such as those used in brewer's drays, etc., require fittings of greater capacity and strength than do those who do less work, and that of a lighter description. For these latter are provided manger fittings such as those in Fig. 44, which has - as also other mangers of similar description - a rounded nosing, so avoiding any sharp and injurious edge. It is divided into three compartments: a manger trough, water pot, and hay-rack, the inside width of which varies from 18 to 24 inches, the whole manger being placed at a height of 3 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 6 inches from floor. Mangers are also made in two compartments, leaving out the water trough. An improvement both in appearance and cleanliness is for the inside of water pot and manger trough to be enamelled. In most stables the horses are watered out of a bucket at fixed times; but where the water or gruel pot is part of the fitting it would be wise to go a step further and to lay on the water supply, and have a waste plug with lead or iron pipe leading to drain channel, which in such a case should be carried right up to wall, as in Figs. 44 and 45. The water container could with advantage be on the tip-up basin principle. Fig. 45 also shows another type of manger in which the hay-rack is placed above manger level. The grating shown at the bottom of the rack serves to keep the hay always well forward. A section of this manger and its protecting plate is also given in Fig. 46.
The fronts of mangers may be left exposed, protected by a curved steel shield, as in Fig. 46, or else have wood sheeting from rim to floor level. This sheeting should be sufficiently raised to allow of passage of broom, etc., or else returned just below the fitting.
Loose-box fittings are much the same as those for stalls, with the exception that less space is encroached upon if the manger is placed anglewise, or if the hayrack is placed in one corner and manger trough in the other.
Fig. 47, a registered arrangement of Messrs.
Hayward Bros. & Eckstein, shows what is termed a ventilating guard. This prevents the horse injuring himself, and at the same time avoids what, in the above-mentioned cases, is liable to become a receptacle for dust, etc.
Messrs. Musgrave & Co. have an arrangement made of iron (Fig. 48) which may be used for loose-box or stall, while it has the strength of an ordinary manger, and economises space. A water pot is shown recessed in the wall, the use of which is optional.
If a hay-rack be made flush with manger it is wise to dispense with any iron rim at back or side, as this might annoy or even entrap the horse should he get his head sufficiently far down.
Messrs. Oates & Green manufacture mangers in salt glazed ware which recommend themselves on account of their cleanly and sanitary properties. They are made in what is called " Nalethric"' fireclay, and are highly glazed; they may be had in brown colour, cream, white, or light green, enamelled inside or outside. Iron is used as brackets for fixing to the wall, and also for the hay-rack. Fig. 49 shows one of the mangers in section attached by means of wooden cleats, and built into the wall flush; but many other means of fixing are adopted, such as by iron plates or bars or by a pillar support. The overall dimensions are 18 inches wide and 13 inches deep, length varying from 3 feet to 6 feet 6 inches.
Fig. 50 shows the general appearance of such a fireclay trough. This special one is made for a loose-box, and is fitted with lugs to fix into walls, instead of which they may be obtained with eyelet pieces to enable of their being bolted to wall.
For a loose-box which is convertible into two stalls, two manger sets should be provided, or a set with a centre and common hay division, as in Fig. 51.
To prevent crib-biting, Professor Varnel invented movable mangers such as that in Fig. 52, which close flush with wall. To accomplish this a space must be allowed at back of stall, which in the majority of cases would be inconvenient, except where a central feeding passage is used in the same way as used in cow-houses. Angle fittings are also made to close up flush, the inside of stall having to be fitted with a wooden shutter which covers up the manger opening.