The dimensions (.42 x .25) of this are almost the same as those of the lozenge tile. In the middle is a narrow rib enlarged at the base into a triangle, and as it ceases at some distance from the horizontal joint, this does not reach under the tile above. On the left side the grooves forming the joint are triple, and at the top the joint is double. The counter-joint has on it a channel which, by means of smaller oblique channels, pours off the water which falls upon it.
This tile, which is manufactured by the United Tileworks of Marseilles, makes excellent roofs (Fig. 460).
The catch and hook tile (Fig. 454) is a lozenge-shaped tile, the lower part of which has a fitting arrangement binding all the tiles together without its being necessary to fix them to the laths. The outer appearance of these tiles is not changed (Fig. 453).
The middle rib ends in a rounded portion which sends the water to each side of the counter-joint. Its dimensions (.28 x .21) are smaller than those of the lozenge tile, and for each square metre twenty are required weighing about 40 kilog. This tile is principally used in the north of France and abroad.
The villa or chalet tile only differs from the preceding ones in its dimensions, which make it squarer in shape.
This has the same dimensions as the lozenge-shaped tile (.4 x .24), and also is 13 to the square metre. The joint is formed by a broad and deep groove bordered through its whole length by two thin ribs; the counter-joint is formed by a broad projection provided, below and in the middle, with a rib fitting into the above-mentioned groove; the join is thus covered (Figs. 435, 446), which is not the case in the lozenge tile (Fig. 444).
A strong rib, hollow underneath, is placed in the middle of the tile and stretches over the whole width. This perfected tile has become the:
The central rib is omitted, and is transferred to the left, where it forms the edge of the groove. The counter-joint, which is double-tongued, is fitted to it and forms with it a fairly broad relief from top to bottom of the roof. The horizontal joint is also double - fitting; the flange of the base is larmiergrooved; a second flange, parallel to the first, crosses the tile, fits into the groove of the upper flange, and thus forms another obstacle to the passage of water. This system is excellent.
Figs. 450 to 464. Modern Tiles of Various Shapes.
The inner flange of the groove forming the joint turns back towards the top, making an angle; the counter-joint has a shoulder-piece. The tile has a single hook at the top, and at the bottom there is an angular groove fitting into the upper angular rib so as to form a joint. Such is the Legros pantile (Fig. 464).
In the Royaux de Leforest (Pas-de-Calais) tile, the upper grooving is not triangular (Figs. 461, 462).
These differ more or less from French tiles, but are derived directly from them.
Among those of antique shape, there are the German flat tile (Figs. 465, 466), which is made by special cutting machines (Fig. 382) - it has four grooves on the top for drawing off the water; the modified Roman flat tile (Fig. 467), carrying its own cover-joint; and the Dutch shaped pantile (Fig. 468). Flat tiles are also made which are hollow inside.
The modern French roofing tiles of the lozenge, Boulet, or Marseilles type are much used abroad. Tiles with continuous (Fig. 469) or interrupted (Fig. 470) vertical joint, and single (Fig. 471) or double (Fig. 472) overlapping, are made in Germany. The figures sufficiently explain the shape of these tiles and the way in which they fit together.
The Italian Ludovici tile is also made either with continuous (Fig. 473) or interrupted (Fig. 474) vertical join, and single (Fig. 475) or double (Fig. 476) fitting.
The Porz tile (Fig. 477) is triple, overlapping, at the top and at the side, and is very similar to the Alsace tile. The Victoria tile (Fig. 478) possesses no visible rib; it overlaps doubly both at the top and at the side, as the figure shows (Fig. 479).
All the preceding tiles are used for covering the flat parts of the roofs; for projecting or re-entrant parts, special tiles are required which take their names from the parts they cover: ridge tiles are placed upon the ridges, hip tiles on the hips, border tiles on the borders of the roof, etc.
Figs. 465 to 482. Foreign Tiles of Various Shapes.