The Nose

The nose is made of a series of wedges based on its bony structure.

Where the bridge of the nose wedges in under the forehead, the two ridges of the glabella descend to form a wedge with apex at the bridge.

The bony part of the nose is a very clear wedge, its ridge only half the length of the nose, higher as it descends; its base somewhat longer, wider as it descends, making the second wedge.

Beyond the bony part, the nose narrows and the ridge sinks slightly toward the bulb, making a third wedge, base to base with the second.

The bulb rises as two sheets of cartilage from the middle of the upper lip (septum of the nose), expands into the bulbous tip. flows over the sides, and flares out to form the alae or wings of the nostrils.

This cartilaginous portion is quite movable. The wings are raised in laughter, dilated in heavy breathing, narrowed in distaste, and wings and tip are raised in scorn, wrinkling the skin over the nose.


Average variations in noses divide them into classes.

They may be small, large, or very large; concave or convex; humped, Roman or straight.

At the tips they may be elevated, horizontal, or depressed; flattened, tapering or twisted.

The wings may be delicate or puffy, round or Mat. triangular, square or almond-shaped.

Comparisons ConstructiveAnatomy 57The Nose. Cartilages of the Nose: 1 Upper lateral.

The Nose. Cartilages of the Nose: 1 Upper lateral.

2 Lower lateral.

3 Wing.

4 Septum.

The Ear

In animals, the external ear is a smooth cornucopia of cartilage, freely movable, ending in a point.

In man it is practically immobile, and its muscles, now mere elastic bands, serve only to draw it into wrinkles. These vary widely, but there are certain definite forms: an outer rim (helix) bearing the remains of the tip; an inner elevation (anti-helix), in front of which is the hollow of the ear (concha) with the opening of the canal, overhung in front by a flap (tragus) and behind and below by a smaller one (anti-tragus). To the whole is appended a lobe.

The ear is vertically in line with the back of the jaw, and lies horizontally between the lines of the brow and the base of the nose.

In it three planes are to be found, divided by lines radiating from the canal, up and back and down and back. The first line marks a depressed angle between its planes, the second a raised angle.

Average variations in ears present the following classes: large, medium or small; round, oval or triangular. The remains of the point of the ear may be marked or absent.

Cartilage of the Ear.

Cartilage of the Ear.

1 Helix.

2 Anti-helix.

3 Tragus.

4 Anti-tragus.

The Mouth

The shape of the mouth and lips is controlled by the shape of the jaw. The more curved the jaw in front the more curved the lips; the more flat it is, the straighter the lips. A much bowed mouth does not occur on a jaw bone that is flat in front, nor a straight slit of a mouth on a curved set of upper teeth.

The curtainous portion of the mouth (from nose to margin of red lip) presents a central groove with pillars on either side, blending into two broad drooping wings, whose terminus is at the pillars of the mouth. The groove ends in a wedge entering the upper lip (red portion). This portion is set at an angle with the curtainous portion.

The upper and lower red lips, accurately adapted to each other when closed, are yet quite different in form; the upper being flat and angular, the lower rounded.

The upper red lip has a central wedge-shaped body, indented at the top by the wedge of the groove above, and two long slender wings disappearing under the pillars of the mouth.

The lower red lip has a central groove and two lateral lobes. It has three surfaces, the largest depressed in the middle, at the groove, and two smaller ones on each side, diminishing in thickness as they curve outward, not so long as the upper lip.

The base or curtainous portion of the lower lip sets at an angle with the red portion less than that in the upper lip. It slopes backward and ends at the cleft of the chin. It has a small linear central ridge and two large lateral lobes, bounded by the pillars of the mouth.

The oval cavity of the mouth is surrounded by a circular muscle (orbicularis oris) whose fibres, overlapping at the corners, raise the skin into the folds known as the pillars of the mouth.

Its outer margin is usually marked by a crease in the skin running from the wings of the nose out and down to varying distances, paralleling the pillars. Its lower end may blend into the cleft of the chin. From this muscle radiate various facial muscles of expression.

Average variations in lips present the following comparisons: thick or thin; prominent, protruding or receding; and each may be compared with the other in these respects: straight, curved or bowed, rosebud, pouting or compressed.