Print-Out Papers

The print is made from the negative and forms the POSITIVE.

Gelatino-Chloride Print-Out Paper, Or P.O.P

Will receive first consideration. This paper belongs to the "Daylight" group of sensitive materials, as it can be handled with safety in weak daylight. It should not, however, be exposed too long at the time of filling the printing-frame, or the light will affect the surface to a degree which will result in the degrading of the whites of the print.

The articles required for printing are the negative, a piece of P.O.P. and the printing-frame. The latter consists of a framework of wood, furnished with a movable back; this is made up of two parts hinged together, each part having its spring to hold it firmly in the outer frame, Fig. 41.

To prepare for printing, the back is removed and the negative, film upwards, is placed in the frame. Upon this is laid a piece of P.O.P., the shiny, sensitive side next to the film; replace the back, and fasten in with the springs.

The frame is now placed in a position where it will be exposed to a well-lighted portion of the sky; but not in direct sunlight, unless the negative be a very dense one. After about five minutes the frame is taken into a room, and at some little distance from the window the print is examined. One portion only of the back of the printing-frame is unfastened, and turned back; then with care, and without pulling, the paper is lifted up. It will be noticed that the outlines of the picture are making their appearance upon the paper. In fastening up the back again care must be taken not to move the paper, and never at any time unfasten the two portions of the back until printing is complete, otherwise a blurred picture will result from the movement of the paper, because it is almost impossible to replace it in the same position when once it has been moved.

Gelatino Chloride Print Out Paper Or P O P /FirstStepsInPhotography 45

Fig. 41.

When the print has acquired a fairly dark brownish purple colour it is removed and put in a suitable place out of the light, such as a box or between the leaves of a book, to await toning. It will keep in this condition for some time, provided active light is kept from it; if, however, light does get to it, the sensitive surface gradually becomes darker, until the image is entirely lost. To prevent this, and to ensure greater permanency, the image must be fixed; but as mere fixation produces an unpleasant colour, the print is passed through a toning bath containing gold, and afterwards fixed.


Toning consists of depositing another metallic body on the print to combine with the silver salt and so produce a more pleasant colour in the finished result. There are several chemicals, as gold, platinum, etc., which will effect this. The gold toning bath, which is the most frequently used, will be here explained.

Toning /FirstStepsInPhotography 46

Fig. 42.

Separate Bath

Of this variety there are two classes, namely, the "Separate" bath, in which the print is first toned, then fixed; and the "Combined," where the operations of toning and fixing take place simultaneously. Several kinds of chemicals are used in conjunction with gold to bring about toning. The usual bath, gold and sulphocyanide of ammonium, will be described. It is advisable to treat from six to twelve prints at one time when toning. For the process will be required two or three deep porcelain dishes (Fig. 42) a size or two larger than the print, to allow of free handling. One of the dishes should be kept entirely for use with the fixing bath, and marked in some way for distinction. The work may be done in weak daylight or gaslight. Endeavour to always tone in the same class of light, or difficulty may arise in knowing when to leave off; for when one gets accustomed to toning in daylight, it becomes somewhat difficult to gauge the proper colour when toning in artificial light.

The prints have to be first well washed; for this purpose two of the dishes are nearly filled with clean water. Into one quickly place the prints face upwards, one by one; at first they will curl up, but as they become moist will flatten out again. By the time all the prints are in, it will be noticed that the water has become milky; now quickly transfer them singly, face downwards, to the other dish. Reject the water from first dish, replace it with some clean, and return the prints. These three changes should be made quickly; afterwards the washing may be carried on more leisurely; it will be complete when the water remains clear, which takes half a dozen or more washings and about a quarter of an hour to perform.