Amongst high-class cameras the variety known as the "Reflex" is at the present time increasing in popularity, but is a somewhat expensive instrument.
Its leading feature is an enlarged reflected image of objects in front of the lens; the image being received upon a mirror set at an angle to the lens is reflected upwards to a ground-glass focussing screen, which is at the base of a sleeve-like focussing hood. In this way focussing is done right up to the time of the exposure, so doing away with distance judging.
As the lens is constantly open - therefore light is admitted until the moment of the actual exposure - provision must be made to protect the sensitive plate or film; this is done by using a focal-plane-shutter, which is of the roller-blind type, excepting that it is fixed up in the camera immediately in front of the plate, and in the case of the Reflex is made up of two parts, one acting as a cut-off, while the shutter is set; while in "time" exposures one section only works.
The shutter-release may be so fixed that the mirror closes up the focussing trap and also holds the shutter open; when so arranged the camera may be used as an ordinary focussing camera on a stand and exposing by the cap, as there is a second focussing screen at the back.
In other respects and in the method of manipulation the Reflex is very similar to the ordinary Magazine Hand Camera. The usual form closely resembles the latter class of camera, but makers are producing a folding type for convenience in carrying.
Fig. 15 represents the general external appearance of the Reflex; while Fig. 16 explains the position of its component parts. A is the focussing hood; B the body; C is the lens chamber; D the connecting bellows to shut out all light during the extension in focussing. On the right side of the body is the trigger-release, E, to shutter; the shutter-speeds regulator, F; and the speeds adjuster, G. The dark-slide, H, is shown in position at the back, while on the left of the camera is the shutter-openings regulator 1, and the rotating screw for extension 2; these are shown in dots, as they are on the opposite side of the camera to that shown by the side-elevation of the illustration. Again, the internal parts are shown in dots, a being the reflecting-mirror with its support and spring to hold it in position at the time of focussing. b indicates the position of the shutter, while c gives that of the ground-glass focussing screen at the top of the camera.
The hood, A, which is collapsible and lies secured by its covering door, is opened out and made rigid by the stays. The door of the lens chamber is opened and the cap removed from the lens. On looking down the hood the image of objects in front of the lens will be seen in the focussing screen, C.
The image may be more or less indistinct, but is sharpened up by turning the screw 2.
The varying speeds of the shutter are obtained by increasing or decreasing tension of its spring, and by altering the width of the openings of the blind. To effect this the speed adjuster, G, is consulted; on this will be found some letters and figures, and the indicators on the dials, F and 1, are set in accordance with these combinations. In the place of the focussing screen at the back of the camera is put the plate-holder, and the shutter of this drawn.
All is now ready for making the exposure; this is done by pressing the trigger on E, which causes the mirror to close up the trap-opening at the base of the hood and at the same time releasing the shutter, and the exposure is made.