Brushing aside the rather prudish attitude that condemns exposure of any kind we would say that the exposure should always be regulated to suit the subject - and, of course, the lighter the subject the greater should be the exposure. It is my experience that the subject has to be coaxed into the appropriate degree of exposure; and, as a general rule, it is desirable that the lighting should be regulated so as to give the maximum encouragement.

Some subjects expose better with full lighting (e.g., limelight or footlights), and others prefer subdued lighting - preferably pink: whilst difficult cases refuse to expose anything worth looking at unless the light is out. In such cases infra red is not infra dig.

When gazing at a well exposed subject do not breathe too heavily on the view-finder as the resultant haze tends to rob one of that savoir faire which is so essential an ingredient of indoor photography.

Time Exposure

Once more according to Mr. Welford . . .: "It is rather awkward to refer to "time exposures, that is, exposures needing a support for their accomplishment, "because it is really not hand-camera work at all. But there are occasions when, "for want of light caused either by the dullness or lateness of the day, or by the "scene or object itself, prolonged exposures are necessary.

"With practice a full second is easily managed, especially if the body be utilised "to the best advantage. One great point in this is to first steady the body, by "sitting down, or leaning against a support. Holding the breath during the "exposure is recommended by some, but I have not found it of much assistance, "as the strain of so doing is as bad as the breathing.

Time Exposure UncleAlbertsManualOfPracticalPhotography 42

In this example of landscape with heavy foliage (half a second at f8) we see a pair of conscientious students looking for a fixed support suitable for a really long exposure. As no fence, gate, wall or rough erection of stone or wood was available they just had to make do with a hedge.

"For longer exposures I should strongly recommend a fixed support, and this is "often obtainable by search (see illustration on page 34). The top of a fence, "gate, or wall, rough erection of stone or wood, for instance.

"Tripods may, of course, be pressed into service, and indeed, there are several "varieties upon the market made specially portable for this very purpose . . .

"In buildings, chuches, etc., there are many opportunities afforded of local "support, such as pews, two chairs placed back to back, etc."

With such a wealth of practical suggestions I can only agree.

Over Exposure

With some subjects it is practically impossible to prevent over-exposure: I have found that complete immersion in lukewarm hypo until the bubbles stop rising is as good a cure as any. Over-exposure is, on the whole, more desirable than under-exposure: unwanted detail can usually be eliminated by deft retouching. We show, on page 39, a few specimens of rather obvious over-exposure. PATCHY, OR PARTIAL EXPOSURE.

Where uninteresting portions of the subject appear to be over exposed, whilst other more decorative zones are obscured, it is often a good idea to ask the sitter to "watch for the dickey." However, it is not wise to keep encouraging the subject to "watch for the Dickey" as, if it fails to appear, disappointment and inertia often result. In obstinate cases a teaspoonful of Butyl Chloride in a cup of steaming hot cocoa will usually do the trick.

Under Exposure

This is a common fault with beginners and it is up to the photographer to guide the subject. Don't rush matters - a few well-chosen formulas and a tumblerful of neat alcohol are usually all that is required. If the light is too strong, draw the blinds: if the light is not strong enough, draw the blinds and light the lamp - remember, incandescent exposure of any kind is frowned on by the authorities. It is advisable to remove the lens cap before letting the hair down.

Duration Of Exposures

One of the easiest questions to ask and the most difficult to answer, is "what exposure is suitable?" The whole matter is so governed by various factors that it is next to impossible to give any direct answer. The factors to be considered are the following:-

(1) The nature of the subject.

(2) Strength of the light.

(3) Aperture.

(4) Speed.

(5) Development.

The great difficulty is to bring home to beginners the considerable effect of variation in any one of these points. As a rule they do not grasp the importance of, say, (1), (2), and (3). Perhaps the following tables by Prof. Burton and Dr. Scott will be of assistance in the matter:-

Comparative Exposures - (Burton)

f8

f11

f16

Sea and sky.....

1/40

1/20

1/16

Open landscape.....

1/12

1/6

1/3

Landscape with heavy foliage ..

1/2

1

2

It will be observed that each stop as it decreases the aperture doubles the exposure.

Thus, an exposure of one second with f8 would be two seconds with f11, and four seconds with f16. These are given for ordinary slow plates, and should be decreased by one half at least for the more rapid brands.

Thus, for a well-lighted landscape 1 24th of a second only (with an aperture of f8) would be required. The table is calculated for bright lighting.

Another factor is the strength of the light. This is a most unreliable one to judge until experience comes to the rescue. The difference in the actinic power of the light, even in bright sunlight, between the morning and afternoon is great.

The photographs (page 38) give some idea of the powerful dramatic effects that can be obtained by cleverly varying the exposure. The ivy leaves were put in freehand when it was all over and had it not been for the cat in the tin hat taking up so much room this caption could have been in its proper place under the picture - instead of here.

Comparative Light Tables - (Scott)

Hour of Day.

May,

April,

March,

Feb.,

Jan.,

a.m.

p.m.

June.

July.

August.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

12 noon.

1

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2

3 1/2

4

11

1

1

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2 1/2

4

5

10

2

1

1

1 1/4

1 3/4

3

5

6

9

3

1

1 1/4

1 1/2

2

4

12

16

8

4

1 1/2

1 1/2

2

3

10

7

5

2

2 1/2

3

6

6

6

2 1/2

3

6

5

7

5

6

4

8

12

It will be noticed that in any month the best time is between ten and two, when the light is strongest and with least variation.

All the evening exposures present another difficulty, as with a yellow sunset the necessary time would have to be increased. Possibly to a beginner the following table will be of first utility, the plate being of the rapid variety and the light good.

f8

Sea and sky....

i/ioo

Street scenes (open)......

1/50

Landscape (open)......

1/20

Landscape (heavy foliage).....

1/2

Interiors.......

Anything from 3 or 4 minutes to several hours, according to the amount of light.

Outdoor portraiture......

Same as open landscape.

If this last table be worked in conjunction with the others, it will be fairly simple to make comparative exposures, taking the light as:-

Bright sunshine....

1

Cloudy bright......

2

Dull ..

3

Gloomy......

4

As a rough guide, if the lens in the hand-camera has an aperture of f8, on a bright, sunshiny day, with a rapid plate - a street scene about midday in June will require 1 /50th of a second. The beginner can make all other calculations from this, as a basis. But his own results will tell him more in this direction than I can.

Comparative Light Tables Scott UncleAlbertsManualOfPracticalPhotography 43