The details of the procedure must be determined, to a large extent, by the individual photographer's preferences in the matter of toning bath and paper. Chloride of gold, in conjunction with other chemicals, is the most generally used toning agent, giving warm-black, red-brown and red tones; whilst Platinum and Uranium are sometimes used to give sepia tones. Chloride of Lime should not be used as a substitute for Chloride of Gold, as, in addition to being useless for the purpose, it causes pimples and gradually dissolves the fingers. In my opinion the best paper for the beginner is the Gelatino-Chloride variety, on account of its easy manipulation and the range and tone of finish obtainable. The other papers can easily be tackled later on. The amateur could not do better than be guided by the detailed directions included with each packet of paper. According to the Hand Camera Manual: "... There are two main principles "adopted in which the operations differ. These are termed the Combined "Bath and the Separate Baths, and briefly, the operations may be thus "described: -

Toning Fixing And Washing UncleAlbertsManualOfPracticalPhotography 56

A capacious bath is absolutely indispensable for photographic work. Practically everything needs washing, fixing, or soaking at some time or another and in an up-to-date bathroom like this all these processes become a pleasure. The fact that J happen not to like the wall-paper or the tattooing on the side of the main bath is mere aesthetic whimsey and certainly does not blind me to the many excellent and practical features of the plumbing: in any case, much of the processing is done either in the dark or by red lamp light.

Combined Bath

Subject immersed without washing. Toned and Fixed at the same operation. Washed after Fixing.

Separate Baths

Subject washed. Toned. Rinsed. Fixed. Washed after Fixing.

The Combined Bath is certainly less work, and it is adopted by many. It is, "however, a little more tricky in its nature and is not so certain in result in a "beginner's hands." As a matter of interest, I would like to point out that the model shown in the illustration on page 47 is definitely not suitable for Combined Bathing; and I don't think a great deal of the paper, either, having an old-fashioned preference for the grapes-crawling-up-a-trellis pattern. The Hand Camera Manual goes on to say that the subject is Toned (or Toned and Fixed) by immersion in the solution in the tray, which is kept in constant motion. They ..."must not stick together in the tray but be constantly changing "position by means of the fingers. They then receive a slight rinse in water "and go into the Fixing Bath, where they remain for about 15 to 20 minutes. "After thorough washing they are passed through a bath of Alum to harden "the film, and lastly dried."