This can readily be illustrated with your lens - tube

23. The application of these principles is easy to everyone who knows how to operate a camera. And in applying them, remember that the base upon which all the rules of true drawing are founded, is what has been explained above. And above all, keep in mind that all horizontal surfaces of objects diminish in breadth as they approach the horizontal line, and regain their true width when they depart from it, either by being immediately above the eye or directly under it. This rule applies to all flat surfaces;and this is why surfaces of objects whose lines are at right angles with their base - line increase in length as they depart from the point of sight, either to the right hand or to the left.

Fig. 6.

20 Angles 10

24. When the mind is fully informed of the variety of courses operating upon lines so as to change their appearance to the eye, natural objects should be contemplated with the various changes produced in their forms by their situation. The eye thus becomes familiar with these alterations and the mind enriched by a variety of examples. Faces and figures should be specially and continuously studied by the portrait photographer, and the rules just laid down applied to them as they are measured and estimated. As they move before you, you not only notice the changes which occur, but you make yourself acquainted with the causes of such changes.

25. In illustration of this, a face has been photo-engraved with a line drawn straight down the centre of it from the forehead to the chin, and which, you will perceive, when viewed directly in front, as in No. 1, presents a straight, perpendicular line, though actually full of undulations from passing over the entire profile. But as those projections and reced-ings of the lines are immediately under each other, they reach the eye in the same manner as it a string was held up perpendicularlv in front of the face. If, however, the

Fig. 7.

20 Angles 1120 Angles 1220 Angles 13

24. Must we admit that our calling is so low down in the scale of human occupation as not to require that mental training and preparation necessary in every occupation requiring the exercise of the least taste or capacity? Then let us not invite that verdict at the hands of the public by flaunting our lack of information in its face, bringing our calling into disrepute, and ourselves into ridicule.

Too many photographists judge their work as a mechanic estimates a piece of nicely adjusted machinery. The higher elements of his art, shades of character, feeling, and sentiment, seem to be utterly and naturally lost upon one whose education, in his profession, has been limited by neglect or indifference to simple results of the dark-room. Is any real artist lied with a delineation merely of the physical conformation of his subject? If bo, his work docs not rise higher than a mechanical operation; his genius is only brought into play in portraying mind, soul, sentiment, and those attributes that bring his subjects nearer to their creator.

The photographist can never rise to the real dignity and requirements of his profession until be makes himself acquainted with the feelings, tastes, and sentiments of the true artist. - D. H. Anderson.

25.Photographs will eventually be stamped with as strong individual character as the canvasses of Rubens and Titian. Such study as the painter bestows cannot be given to photographic portraiture; but in the matter of lighting the sitter, what background he shall have, what accessories, what attitude, there is an infinite choice and room for any amount of face is viewed when turned round half-way, as in No.2, those parts of the line which recede or project will assume one - half of their characacter and projection, while in the profiel No.3, the Line acquires its similitude, from its being undisturbed by those laws which govern per-spective. If were to proceed and examine each feature in the name manner, we should find that the same laws lead us into a correct the alterations which take place upon every alteration in position. 26. To explain this more clearly: It we take one of these faces (bor-rowing an illustration from Burnel again), and hold it with the chin towards us,so as to observe the eurve on which the month is placed, can easily perceive that a person viewing it in the direction of the lines a b, which would give him a view of the face between a from and a profile (or, what is generally termed, a three-quarter), would tee one side of the lip of its entire length; while the other side, lying in the di-rection,of the visual rays, would be reduced to very small space, as may be perceived by its breadth on the ideal line c, which cuts such rays at right angles. Such also is the case with the nose in the same view of the face; one side remains undiminished, while the other side forms a mere outline, being seen entirely under the influence of perspective.

27.It is now the purpose of what follows to point, out how and when originality in style. The art is yet in its infancy, ami already many photographers of artistic temperament are beginning to be felt in the character of their productions - Charles Akers

Fig 8.

20 Angles 14

26. If every photographic artist could have one of Titian's portraits hanging in his studio, the result would soon be seen in our likenesses. In these portraits there are no dead surfaces,there is no distortion; the soul looks forth from its windows with a lofty tranquillity. - Charles Akers.

27.There are many examples of the great masters with whose works all artists should be familier; and the remembrance of these will always stimulate and suggest invention.In arranging living models, however, no artist will succeed if he attempt to imitate pictures.

Each subject should be treated according to its own its own individualism.

But a knowledge of good works will aid invention, and it will be found that one subject may be treated with advantage after the style of one master, and another after the another. One subject would inspire a Titian, another a Raphael, a third Vandyck, and others in succession - a Velasquez, a Lawrence,a When the artist is interested in bis work, and believes in his art, it becomes wonderful plastic, and the materials wonderfully tractable in his hands. - Adam Salomon.

I knowledge of the foregoing principles can be of service in photography. It is done with many a foregone conclusion thai the camera cannot err, and that whatever is rendered by its aid must, so far as drawing is concerned, be faultless. This is undoubtedly a mistaken idea; and even if we were to admit the instrument to he faultless, what of the photographer?

28. It has been stated that if a pencil or stick is held parallel with the eyes, and gradually turned round, it will seem to become shorter and shorter. The recollection of this principle will be found of much value in the practice of photography. Every part of a picture is more or less, influenced by it, and very objectionable features may often be much modified by its proper use. One illustration will suffice, and will suggest to the intelligent reader many others. For example, if you have a lady with broad, square shoulders as your sitter, if taken parallel with the camera, the fact of her having broad, square shoulders will be rendered to its full extent; but if the same figure be turned so as to give a three-quarter, or sometimes a profile view, it will be found to lessen the peculiarity, and more graceful lines will be obtained.

29. It has also been stated that all objects diminish in size as the spectator departs from them, and in an increased ratio, until removed to a certain distance, when the diminution appears less violent; and, that when objects are commenced too near, they appear out of proportion with the other objects in the work; and, although true according to rule, appear false in regard to their effect upon the eye of the spectator. This ought to suggest the advisability of using a lens that will allow of its being placed at a proper distance from the sitter or object which is being photographed, and thus avoid giving undue prominence to any part. This is so apparent in its application, that any illustration is unnecessary, yet do not over look an error which not unfrequently occurs by violation of this rule.

28. The art of photography is essentially a work of selection. The photographer does not possess the power of the artist, who, in painting, can make alterations in composition and vary his effects during the progress of the picture. In photography it is the opposite; everything must be settled beforehand, or the production, if not satisfactory, must be set aside and the work be commenced anew. A quick appreciation of correct contour of line, with a good knowledge of composition, and the means in readings to produce a suitable chiaro-oscuro in character with the subject, combined with the ability to select the most favorable view of the model, joined with an easy manner of doing the same without flurrying either himself or the sitter, are some of the main essentials necessary in the practice of a photographic portraitist. - R. Slingsby.

30. Heads of children are large by nature in proportion to their bodies, but this is often considerably increased when their portraits are taken by photography, and arises from their being short of stature. They are generally under the eye of camera, and as short-focus lenses are mostly used for children, to secure speed in working, that again necessitates the camera being placed near the child, and thus being near, and looking down on it, the natural consequence is that a picture is produced in which the head is enlarged and the figure dwarfed. The reined this is, use a very low stand for your camera, or elevate the child so as to bring the lens atleast parallel with the face.