77. In the foregoing remarks, your attention has been drawn outside the studio, and to many this may seem of little practical value as regards their every-day work. But it is not so, for the same principle prevails both within and without, As a partial proof of this truth, witness this fine copy of "The Soldier and the Laughing Girl," by J. Van der Meer, of Delft, now in the Double Collection of Paris. It is a grand studv in pen to be a blonde dressed in light drapery. A little investigation will, therefore, show that the marble, being a semi-transparent substance, permits - indeed requires - this strong treatment, in order to produce the proper amount of relief, and that, in the case of the blonde with the drapery light in color, the shadows are softened by the reflections carried into them, and thus reducing their intensity. Every one must at some time or other have been struck with the wonderful effect of relief, combined with perfect transparency in the'half-shadows, when a lady dressed in very light diaphanous material has chanced to be placed near an open window in a well-lit room. The effect is totally different if a swarthy, black-bearded man, in the mournful livery common to this age, should happen to be seen under precisely similar circumstances. In the latter case there are no reflections to help out the effect; hence the difference. I may say here, that the most perfect effects of lighting I have ever seen have been produced at a lofty side-window, the lower portion of which was covered with a semi-transparent material, a suitable system of reflectors being used to carry light into the deepest shadows to lessen the contrast. - Valentine Blanchard.

Fig. 23.

64 Circular Composition 41

77. As to the study of light, I follow it intuitively. I find my models everywhere, in parlors, halls, churches, offices, shops, railway cars; wherever there are windows or gas-jets, and head.- for the light to shine upon, there are my studies - sometimes more, sometimes less interesting, but studied all the same. Frequently in common conversation, or in the course of a business transaction, I give as much attention to lighting the head of my model as I do to the drift of his talk or the character of the business in hand. We may be introduced to a chiaro- oscuro,a mode for photographic imitation, and seen to have been made for this every purpose. It will bear the closest study. 78. It is also a fact that in photographic portraiture it is not considered desirable to illuminate the sitter with direct sunlight, but, if we with to produce the broad, open effect of daylight, with well defined and equally illuminated line, we must use a broad, open, well diffused light, so arranging the drapery of figure:accessories that we obtain enough of sharp and Well-defined shadows to give the necessary pith and precision to the whole. 79. Careful attention to this point will give a much greater effect brilliancy and light than any amount of over intensifying. Again,if we wish to produce those effects which mighl be styled a la Rembrandt,we must use a more direct, concentrated light, and so arranging the figure or sitter that the light falls upon and fully illumines the portion of the figure we wish to give the greatest prominence, allowing the other parts, both of the form and outline, to be partially lost in shade, Do not misunderstand, blackness is not meant. By this means of lighting some stranger, and while assuring him of the pleasure we have found in his acquaintance, and wondering if it will rain before night, we have discovered that his nose is a little out of true, and that a three - fourths face, away from the light, will suit him best.

In this study or pursuit much is to be gained. We learn to recognize the true from the false, the good from the bad. An education may be so acquired that would be obtained in no other way. We see and fix in the mind many peculiarities and effects of light that by accumulation become knowledge. There may be a lesson in the shadow thrown from a hitching - post, if we look for it, as much as there are " sermons in stones." These hints and bits of observation, picked up in promiscuous ways and places, carried into the operating - room, give power to the possessor of them, and make him master of the situation. When we once get into this way of " trying on," we are not likely to abandon the habit. - J.F.Ryder.

78. Place the sitter so the light is diffused. I open the light for forty - five degrees usually. Why use that angle? Why not straight up over-head? The reason is, that I want to show the lines of the brow, the lines of the nostrils. I want to show the shadow falling off to this direction so as to give the shape of the nostrils. I do not want to show it as if I were standing under you and looking up into your nose. I So not want to throw a shadow on the noblest part of the human countenance. - A. S. Southworth.

79. In these likenesses there is no striving for any transitory effect. No part of the face or head is put in deep shadow, all is clear and sunny. There is no flinching from hard work. Wherever shadow is used, the modelling is continued perfectly throughout the whole. In the best faces of Titian no shadow is apparent, yet there is no flatness; they are full and very grand effects are produced. Many have supposed, however, that this style is conventional and unreal. Such is not the case, for the same effect may be Been in any apartment which is but partially illuminated, whether by artificial means, or by the opening by which the daylight enters being small in proportion to the size of the apartment. Both ways are correct in principle and equally good if suited to the subject; the former will be found most serviceable for general use, and may be considered as nature's sunshine, while the latter may be appreciated as we do nature in her grander moods, as in the coming storm or the play of the forked lightning.