84. The results which light and shade may produce are very many. but the principal ones generally sought for are relief, harmony, and breadth. By the first we are enabled, so far as the camera, lens, etc., will allow, to give the distinctness and solidity of nature, i. e., so near as we can. a stereoscopic effect to our pictures. The second is the result of a union and consent of one part with another; and the third, a general breadth, gives the idea of extent and magnitude. Now, these three properties should employ the careful and most attentive examination of every one who de-
83. Perhaps, among beginners, there is no more common error than the employment of too much light. The natural instinct of the artistically uneducated mind seems to be to surround the sitter with light, to throw it in on all sides, and as much on one side of the face as on the other. How grave a mistake this is. - W. J. Baker.
84. It will be found that whilst one operator rigidly adheres to the plan of contrasting the lighted side of the figure against the dark part of ground, another will as uniformly practise the reverse, i. e., placing the illuminated side of a face against the light side of the ground, and the shadow side against the darker. Pictures in these two styles will be found most numerous. A third party will, for all kinds of subjects, invariably use the darkest side uppermost, and a fourth the lightest. There are subjects suited to all of these plans, and it often requires much study and care to know which is the proper one to adopt. Where the operator is unable to decide which is best, we would advise an entirely plain background.
The principal objections to the mode of operator No. 1 are, first, the resulting picture often has a cut-up, patchy effect, in which the proper breadth of light and shade for a fine artistic effect are destroyed. Second, a homely feature (or maybe a homely face) is made too prominent, by contrast centring interest to that part. In the pictures of No. 2, breadth is secured and a fine result often obtained, but unless the subject is entirely suited, a plain ground would be best. - "Pyro." sires to improve; for, by giving too much relief a dry, hard effect - cast-iron it might be called - is produced; by too much softness and blending of the parts, woolliness and insipidity; and in a desire to preserve a breadth of effect there is danger of producing flatness.
Relief is desirable, to a certain extent, in all our productions, and the larger the work the more relief required; but, as has been said, we should be careful not to get too much.
Harmony depends upon the intermedials parts of a picture serving as a link or chain, either by oonveying a sensation the same light shade with the in immediate contact, or by reducing, neutralizing,or breaking down entirely the harsh asperities of the two extremes, and thus producing a connection or agreement, - a fallen tree leading across the turbid stream from the darkness of the wild wood to the bright sunshine on the other side.
85.Breadth Of Effect is Only to be produced BY a Great Extent of light or shade pervading the picture. If an open, daylight appearance is intended, it will be best produced by leaving out part of the middle-tint, and allowing a greater spread of light and half - light; in this way one may also give the darks the relative forces which they possess in nature. If a breadth of shadow is required, the picture ought to be made up of middle-tint and half - dark. In the One treatment the dark ought to tell sharp and cutting, which is the characteristic of strong daylight In the
85. When too much light is reflected on the shaded side of the face it prevents the spectator from tracing the direction of the principal illumination, and, trivial as this statement may seem to those who have not considered the subject, it involves the most important characteristic of a picture, that of unity. Unity cannot be obtained without breadth, and the quality of breadth is entirely dependent on the eye being able to trace with facility the direction of the illuminating force. The idea is a perfectly natural one. The sun's rays at any given moment sweep through the entire landscape, casting shadows in but one and the same direction, and this is the type of breadth. It establishes, by association and the analogy of nature, a law in our minds to which all representations of natural objects should con-form; and the simplest form of picture, that containing but one object, as a face, is just as much subject to this law as the presentation of miles of landscape, with its infinite diversity works it frequently forms a circumscribed spot, for, as Reynolds has observed, "that light must appear the brightest which is surrounded by the greatest quantity of shade." His plan is followed by many photographers of the present day. They select the face of the figure for a blaze of light, and work their chemicals so intensely as to make hair and drapery so black that the beautiful half-tones that should be secured in the flesh are entirely gone. An example of this will be found in the portrait herewith, of Rembrandt, by himself.
Very much allied to the notions of unity by breadth is that of massing the light and shade, keeping each in its separate place, the lights on one side of the face, the shadow the other. The same illustrations which show the first law exhibit the second. Where a simple object, as a cube or a globe, is presented to the sun, we see easily the separation of these masses, sharply divided in the two sides of the cube, graded into each other in the globe; and it is quite as essential, to the unity of a composition, that the shadows be united 6 other the lights ought to appear powerful and brilliant, enveloped in masses of obscurity. When shadow is carried beyond the necessary depth for the relief or distinct marking of the several parts, it gives the effect of breadth to the picture, from the fact that it absorbs many of the half-tints and renders the dark less cutting. It also has the influence of repose, as fewer of the outlines are visible.