Pure Virgin Wax,..................

500 grammes

Gum Elemi,..................

10 grammes


200 grammes

Essence of Lavender,..................

300 grammes

Oil of Spike,..................

15 grammes

Those who wish to try a small sample can substitute grains for grammes. Melt the whole on a water-bath, mix thoroughly, and strain through muslin. A simpler plan will be to dissolve the elemi in the solvents, as described above, and, after filtering, mix with the melted wax, as the filtration, which is chiefly intended for the gum elemi, is more easily managed before the wax is present. This, when finished, forms a stiff paste. By increasing the proportion of essence of lavender it can be made thinner, which in winter may be desirabe. The encaustic paste is put on the print in patches in three or four parts, and then rubbed, with a light quick motion, with a piece of clean flannel, until a firm, fine surface is obtained. If a rich, thick coating of the encaustic be desired, a very light pressure in rubbing is necessary, so that a polish may be acquired without rubbing off the paste in the operation. If a print be retouched, more especial care is required to use a light hand in applying the encaustic paste. - Adam Salomon.

301. First, after prints are dry, spot out, and before burnishing, rub them briskly with a cotton-flannel patch saturated with either white or common yellow wax, it matters not. After the wax is applied to the patch, let it get cold or nearly so; cold enough not to stick to the print, and warm enough to be pliable. Begin rubbing lightly until the wax and patch get a nice polish. If any bits should get stuck to the print, they can be readily rubbed off with a clean patch. This, properly applied, I find preferable to any other; it fills the grain of the paper, and does not remove the spotting, and the prints will bear handling without injury. Second, keep the burnisher well polished. Take a smooth piece of pine, about two and a half inches wide, one inch thick, and thirty inches long; on one side of this apply flour of emery and kerosene; spread it over smoothly. To begin with, lay the prepared stick down face up; over this pass the face of your burnisher (if it scratches) until the face is true, and all scratches removed; now have a similar stick, over one face of which is stretched a piece of buckskin, similar to what we used to buff Daguerrotype plates with; apply to this jeweller's rouge, and finish the polish of the burnisher with it; you have now a polish that can't be beat. - A. Hesler.

First, see that the picture is not too much dried, as all know the swell of the card when a picture is first mounted bends the picture backwards. Let the picture dry until the contraction of the paper just commences to bend the picture forward. It will be found that the picture in this stage is about three-fourths dry, and it is absolutely necessary that it should not be allowed to dry any more than this until after it has gone through the burnisher patrons. The neat and thoughtful photographer will show enterprise, and deliver his work in tasteful cases or envelopes, and allow no print to pass his counter that will not do him credit in every way, and serve to bring him an additional patron. He should feel as if his future reputation depended upon the pictures being delivered now.

Mounting And Finishing.

This is best done by piling the picture in one or two piles, and placing them under a weight They should be carefully taken from this pile and spotted out, and immediately placed in another pile under weight. The same precaution should take place in applying the lubricator to the print. They should be taken to the burnisher in this condition and put through until a sufficient polish is reached. The reason for this method of procedure will be evident to any one who has observed with what a number of irregular lines the surface of a picture will become broken when allowed to become perfectly dry in the usual manner. When these checks have once appeared in a picture, there is no method of again uniting the broken suras I have repeatedly demonstrated by all sorts of experiments. When burnished by the above directions, the picture, when cool, will be found to be very compact and hard, and neither alcohol nor water will destroy the gloss, except by long soaking. Another little hint I would give on the best way to handle a picture in the burnisher. Just put the picture through the burnisher lengthways, curling it up backwards around the roller; afterwards put it through sideways, thus straightening it, and thereby a much higher polish will be secured. - J. H. Scotford.

If occasionally a cabinet or card picture will not take the gloss, breathe upon it freely, run it through the burnisher, and behold the shine. Should it not be produced the first time of trying, repeat the operation after the picture has become cool; the desired result will then be obtained. - C. J. Stiff.

About two years since I was very much troubled with very fine scratches in burnishing, different from those caused by roughness of the burnishing tool. Another proof that the cause lay outside of the burnisher, was that two or three, perhaps, would burnish all right, then one scratched badly, next all right, and so on through the lot. I finally found the cause to be that the prints were allowed to get too dry before burnishing, and the remedy I used was as follows: After mounting, the moisture should not get out of the prints before burnishing. As soon as the prints begin to curl towards the picture, I pack them one upon another. My first plan was to place them in the cellar until ready to spot; while doing this I only expose one print at a time, keeping them packed. After spotting, lubricate with soap and alcohol (I find wax, spermaceti, etc., to give, in my experience, a veiled appearance), and spread out in the cellar upon something clean. I use a cloth stretched upon a small frame, where they should remain until ready to burnish. A superior burnish will result if they can remain twelve hours after lubricating, as directed, spread in the cellar. I have since made another improvement, substituting for the cellar a tight tin box, which I had made large enough to hold my prints flat. Care must be taken not to have the prints too damp. I run them through, lightly, twice across the burnishing tool, until all are through, then run about four times again, commencing with the first; I run the first thin. - Irving Saunders