Enlarge upon this bymaking and imitating other forms.

13.Every figure or form holds within it, more or leas, portions of a triangle, square, or circle. In order, therefore, to tit the eye for the pur pose of such qualities when mixed and combined with more complicated figures,|it must be taught to imitate and comprehend such objects pearance of the gallery made as prominent a feature and study as possible; and as long as photographs are offered to the public by the dozen,so long will it have a commercial aspect. Then photographers as a class are so avaricious; the almighty dollar i- what they are seeking, and everything, art and all, is sacrificed upon its altar. So business and photography, by usage, have become very closely allied, and to make the latter recognized among the fine arts will be a very difficult matter under the present regime. But as photographers rise higher in their art knowledge and the application of it, they will have more pride in their efforts, a more generous feeling towards each other (even to their next door neighbor), and a higher love for their profession, for business and its chosen god, the almighty dollar, will then have some respect for the photographic art, and kneel to its dictation. - Alva Pearsall.

12. One of the very best methods of self-tuition in photography is the cultivation of the habit of comparison. If the photographer is really honest and earnest in bis desire to improve (and by improvement I mean the improvement of his finances as well as of his work, for the one is sure to follow the other), he will fall into this habit involuntarily, and blessed is he if be does. He will not settle into a rut, and say to himself,"Well, things are going along smoothly, and I will let them alone;" but the rather, " I am going to lift myself out of this and see what is going on outsides, even if it does go rough for awhile."

He will, when he picks up examples of the work of others, fall into the good plan ofmen tally placing it alongside his own, and then going through a course of catechism, honestly questioning and honestly answering himself. And the result will be, be the examination in favor of his own work or not, that he will learn something which will prove profitable to him - Old Argentum. from the parallel of their base - line. Hold;a pencil at its centre,by thumb and finger, parallel to the eye; now gradually twirl it around, and it appears to become shorter and shorter, until it is seemingly but a spot, when it is placed with the point directly towards the eye. This is called the point of sight, which is always upon a horizontal line and immediately opposite the eye of the observer. Turn it around now, from right to left, or vice versa, and points without number may be described along the entire line. These are called accidental points, and vary, more or less,as the lines run at right angles from the base-line.

13. In reference to the requirements of art, Goethe has written on this background of the past, "That the highest demand that can be made of an artist is this, that be shall hold to nature, study her, imitate her; that he shall produce something resembling her manifestations. How great, nay, immense, this requirement is, we do not often consider; and even in their ample forms. Therefore, select some of the objects used in your work having these forms or partly so, and draw from them. Thus your eye will become accustomed to them, and gradually you will fall into the habit of mentally measuring the correctness of the shapes constantly presented to your eyes, and you will have received excellent lessons in the grand principles of eye education, measurement, and form.

14. After these come the vastly important lessons of perspective, so useful in the practice of photography. Clothed with its geometrical and mathematical intricacies, perspective is a bugbear which "hoodlums" many a would-be art student. The effort will be made here to render it understandable and of service. The Latin derivation is per, through, amd specto, to view; and the drawing in perspective, may be defined as the art of representing various objects subject to those laws which regulate their appearance in nature.

15. As all forms are made up of lines, more or less intricate, their study should engage us now. All of them are subject to variations in their appearance except two - a horizontal line and a perpendicular one. Line - are also more or less diminished in their length as they depart the true artist succeeds through instinct and taste, through practice and trial, in approaching the outward beautiful side of objects, in choosing the best out of the good before him, and at last learns how to produce an agreeable appearance; how much more rarely does it occur, especially in these later times, that the artist is able to penetrate into the depths of his own soul, as well as to take the measure of outward objects; and thus, instead of producing works of a merely superficial effect, emulate nature herself, and create a spiritually organic whole, giving to his work an import and a form that make it seem at once natural and supernatural."

This may not all be within the grasp of the student of photography, because he deals more with material things, and has not the latitude for idealizing that the painter has; but that photography is susceptible of embodying all the higher elements of true art, the works of to-day, which express so much of poetry and sentiment, abundantly testify. - G. W. Wallace.

14. The merit of our higher classes of work consists in the adaptation of recognized rules of art to the end in view. Study of perspective, the effects of light and shade, of the graceful disposition of lines, and of the judicious aid of simple accessories, will do more to enhance the value of one's work than the collection of all the receipts ever concocted. - John L.Gihon.

15. First, of course, comes the closest study of nature in all her moods; but, to supplement this, familiarity with the work of her best interpreters is of a certain advantage. I have said that the best likenesses in photography seem out of keeping; the light is so dis-tributed upon them that certain features are too prominent, others too receding. The bridges of noses are widening, the ends made bulbous, and often the neck is without modelling. There are flat spaces and empty spaces. This is not the case in nature. However little there may be in the head, there is plenty of modelling on the outside. Nature leaves no blank, all is finely modelled and diversified. - Charles Akkrs.