This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Reflecting Screen. In using the reflector place it so that the light will fall upon the front of the face and blend gradually back toward the cheek and ear. To do this place the reflector at an angle of about 45° with the skylight, and as close as possible to the subject without reflecting too strong a light. Should the walls of the room be of a neutral tint, it may be possible to do away entirely with the reflecting screen, but usually some reflected light is necessary.
291. To make a successful Hollinger Lighting, the eye should be trained to observe the most delicate high-lights. This is essential for judging when the proper effect has been produced. The high-lights need not be prominent on the face, but the most delicate lights must be preserved in the development. For your first work, it is better to use a rather high key of light, and, when once familiar with the different methods of lighting, you may then experiment and work for a lighting in a lower key, but avoid going to the extremes. When once a style to your liking is developed, do not change it in the regular run of work, but strive to produce exactly the same effect each time. If you aspire to become a master of your profession, aim to produce uniform results.
292. For Hollinger Lighting the person being posed should be placed back from the light, permitting all the illumination to fall in front of the subject. By reference to the diagram of the floor plan you will observe the exact position of the different accessories in making the illustrations. As conditions are not the same in all studios, it may be necessary to alter the positions somewhat to suit the room in which the work is being done; but the diagram will serve to illustrate clearly the manner in which the lighting is obtained. The principle points to remember are, that practically an open light must be employed; that the subject is placed back from the direct light and also away from the side light; and that the key of light if controlled by the diffusing screen between the light and sitter.
293. The instruction given, in Chapter VII (Architectural Detail), Plain Portrait Lighting, regarding the posing of the subject, applies to Hollinger Lighting as well. As this lighting is delightfully soft, it is. particularly well adapted to almost any style of pose; sitting positions, two-thirds or half figures being most attractive under this lighting. Lounging positions of men or women give beautiful results. It is not as effective for children's portraits, because they are made to better advantage in a higher key.
Study The Subject Carefully. There are cases where it will prove more characteristic to have the shoulders slightly drooped, or the head tipped a trifle. If, when the occasion arises, this is properly done it will aid greatly in enhancing the character value of the portrait.
Background. Although customary when using a gradually blended background to place the dark end of the ground back of the high-light side, and the light end back of the shadow side of the subject, some very pretty effects can be obtained by reversing this order, allowing the shadows of the subject to gradually melt into the dark portions of the ground. The general characteristics of the subject will assist in determining when to use the background in this way.