This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Construction Of Cabinet Frame. It is preferable to have the framework of the cabinet constructed of as light material as is consistent with rigidity. White pine strips, one inch square, will answer admirably, and for the whole frame 84 feet will be required. If the strips are procured in twelve foot lengths there will be no waste, as such will cut to advantage. (See Illustration No. 89.)
670a. First, cut fifteen lengths four feet each, four lengths one foot each, and four lengths three feet each. Now, using the four-foot pieces, make the three square frames, a, b and c. The corners should be mitered, glued and nailed so the frame will be strong. At the corners of frame c glue and nail the one-foot pieces, and at the end of these firmly fasten the two four foot lengths, d-e and f-g. Next, take two of the three foot strips; place the end of one at e, that of the other at g, thus forming the angle at i. The distance from e, also g, to i is two feet three inches. Miter the ends of the two strips so they will fit together perfectly; then glue and nail
Illustration No. 89. Frame Of Cabinet..
See Paragraph No. 670.
The Studio of the Future. 364a into position. This done, complete the top, d-h-f, working in the same way. Fasten into position the last four foot strip between points h and i. The braces m and n are placed four inches from the center of the front of the frame, both in the bottom and top panel. With a pair of two inch butts hinge the frame a to c, having previously covered a with lonsdale cambric or tracing cloth. The cloth should be large enough so it can be drawn completely around the front of the frame and tacked on what will be the inside. The tracing cloth is not to be preferred to the lonsdale cambric, as the latter, after having been coated with an easily spreading solution of gum dammar and turpentine, will give a more diffused, and at the same time brilliant, illumination. Cover frame b with a good quality of bleached muslin, which acts as a reflector to throw downward light that would otherwise be wasted. This frame is held in the position shown by means of screw hooks in the ends of the frame, at o and p, caught in screw-eyes which are inserted in the center of the top cross pieces.
Covering Cabinet. Cover the sides and back of the body frame, or what we can now term the cabinet, with white oilcloth, having the oiled side face inward to act as a reflector. The cloth should be fifty-two inches wide and seven feet long. With this done cover the outside with brown denim, using small black tacks and inserting them on the bottom and on the top edges of the body frame; the two ends of the cloth being extended toward the front, and cut to fill in the angle formed by the diffusing screen a and the front of the cabinet. These side extensions of denim should be neatly lined with bleached muslin, and to the top edge rings sewed every four inches, through which is threaded a wire, fastening its ends to screw-eyes inserted in the top frame b. By this arrangement it is possible to open or close the side curtains at will. Now line the bottom and the top of the cabinet with bleached muslin, and on the outside tack brown denim. In this way all light is reflected toward the opening upon the diffusing screen which latter, by means of cords can be adjusted to any desired angle. To place the frame in position the upright rod of the standard is removed from the base and inserted through the center of the top and bottom of the body frame. The wooden shelf, which can be seen underneath the cabinet in Illustration No. 89, is securely fastened to the upright rod by means of two metal pipe straps. Thumb-screws should be used on one side of each strap, so the shelf and cabinet can be readily adjusted to any height.
670r. Through the braces m and n in the bottom of the cabinet insert long wood screws and securely fasten the cabinet to the shelf. The top of the cabinet should be braced to the upright rod with strong wire. Now replace the upright rod in the base of the standard and set up in proper position.
671. - Plan of Ceiling Illumination and Electric Cabinet. While it is not absolutely necessary that the general illumination of the room be specially arranged, yet if one is to fit up a room specially for the work they might as well locate all chandeliers, etc., in a position where the light from them will assist in illuminating the subject. Ordinarily, two chandeliers - one at each end of the center of the room - will suffice. Where the subject is arranged at either end of the room the chandeliers overhead assist in illuminating the hair, thus supplying detail to the hair, which cannot be accomplished with the large lamp, the light from which, being much stronger, reflects the light from the side and front only, while the chandelier, although less actinic in quality does assist in the general illumination.
671a. In addition to the chandeliers - one at each end of the room - there may be a two-light chandelier located between these two chandeliers, but a trifle to one side of the center. The light from this chandelier is used to illuminate the shadows, and the electric bulbs employed should be much larger than those used in the two end lights. The bulbs employed in making the illustrations were as follows: In the two end chandeliers we used four 32-candle power Tungsten bulbs; in the lamps to the side were used two 80-candle power Tungsten bulbs. Each chandelier was fitted with a separate switch, located at a central point within easy access. The large Tungsten lamps at the side are fitted with a drop switch from the side wall, the cable of which is of sufficient length to reach to the camera, thus enabling the operator to flash these lights on or off at will. In this way he has absolute control over the illuminant used, and can produce any effect desired.
Illustration No. 90. The Studio of the Future - Plan of Electric Wiring..
See Paragraph No. 671 b.
A - Light Cabinet, b. c - Arc Lamps, d - Side Chandelier, e. f - Center Chandeliers, g - Drop Light, m-Upright Rod of Standard, n - Plug and Switches.
671b. In addition to all the lights named above, we have provided a single bulb drop light in the one corner of the room, which contains a 32-candle power Tungsten bulb. The cable on this drop lamp is of sufficient length to permit of raising and lowering to any height, and becomes very useful when photographing children,for by means of this extra drop light, which falls to one side of the subject, the shadows are fully illuminated. In Illustration No. 90 the sketch of the ceiling plan illustrated herein will supply a fair idea of the arrangement of lights in this studio.