This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Printing-in Borders and Tinting Margins.
1168. Artistic and effective results may be produced by double printing. This method is only applicable to printing-out papers, as the tinting is done in sections, and it is necessary to see what you are doing during the printing, in order to judge the depth to which each tint is being printed. Various tints may be produced, ranging from the lightest to the darkest. While extremely simple, the work requires careful and exact registering of the masks and paper when printing. To make a print with tinted border, from a small negative on a large piece of paper, it is necessary to be provided with several pieces of clean glass the size of the prints desired.
1169. In printing borders, the size of the print should always be about twice the size of the negative printed from. For cabinet size negatives usually 8 x 10 or 10 x 12 paper is used; for 7 x 9 or 8 x 10 negatives, 11 x 14 or 14 x 17 paper is frequently employed. So, if you are printing from a cabinet negative and the prints are to be 8 x 10, the glass and printing frame must be 8 x 10. Place a piece of this glass in the printing frame. Cut a sheet of opaque, or what is commonly called post office paper, the exact size of the glass. This paper is to be the first mask. With a straight edge or rule, draw lines from opposite corners; where these lines cross will be found the exact center. (See Fig. 1 of Illustration No. 13.) Next select a cut-out form of suitable size and shape to fit the negative and subject. It may be square, oblong, round, or like the oval which we have chosen for illustrating this instruction. If oval cutouts are used, provide an adjustable trimming wheel.
1170. There are a number of trimming devices. Most of them give satisfactory results. The Ingento revolving trimmer, however, will enable you with one and the same trimmer, to cut five different size ovals from one form, by simply changing the wheel and flange to various positions; making it possible to make four sizes of masking, or four different widths of margins in the finished print. Place the cut-out form on the center of the masking paper, being guided by the pencil marks. Then with a double trimmer cut out the oval, preserving the inside of the cutout. (See Fig. 3 of Illustration No. 13.) Without moving the cut-out form again, trim this sheet with a single trimmer, which cuts closer to the form, thus making Fig. 2 a trifle larger than the first piece cut out in Fig. 3.
1171. Next place the mask (Fig. 2) on the glass in the printing frame, placing the negative on this, masking carefully and adjusting it over the opening. Fasten the negative at the corners to the mask with strips of gummed paper (also shown in Fig 2). Place the senstive paper on the negative and print to the proper depth for finished print. When printed, remove from the printing frame and place the print face up on a piece of glass, a trifle larger than the print, which in turn has been placed on a piece of cardboard of the same size. On the center of another piece of clean glass attach, with a little paste, mask No. 3, placing this glass and mask over the print and properly adjusting the mask over the printed part.
1172. Mask No. 3 being a trifle smaller than the opening in mask No. 2, will cause the printing of a line around the print. In Figures 4 and 5 note two masks that are the same as No. 2, the only difference being that No. 4 has a trifle larger opening than No. 2, and No. 5 an opening a trifle larger than No. 4.
1173. The size of these openings is governed entirely by your own personal taste and judgment. For example, No. 4 may have an opening one-half inch larger than No. 2, thereby producing a one-half inch dark border around the print, while the No. 5 opening may be two inches larger than No. 4, which would produce a 2 1/2 inch dark border around the print. The time of printing will govern the different depths of these borders. Fig. 6 is a mask like Fig. 3, with the exception that it is larger, but having been trimmed with a single trimmer in same manner as Fig. 3, it is a trifle smaller than the opening from which it was cut (mask No. 5).
Illustration No. 13 Border Printing See Paragraph No. 1169.
1174. After placing mask No. 3 (which is tacked to plain glass), mask side down, on the print, carefully adjust it so it will leave an even margin all around. In order to block out all of the border and prevent it from printing, and at the same time print another border, place mask No. 4 over No. 3. This will give an exposed margin of the unprinted paper around Fig. 3. Place a piece of clean glass over mask No. 4 and with photo clips (see illustration) hold the glasses, masks, print and cardboard together. Place in the printing light and print until the desired tint is obtained. Judge the depth of printing entirely by its appearance upon the surface. If a toning paper is used, you must print two shades deeper and allow for the toning which will make the tinted parts a trifle lighter.
1175. Having printed this section, next remove mask No. 4 but allow mask No. 3 to remain on the print and in place of mask No. 4, place mask No. 5, carefully adjusting it to obtain an even margin. Place a plain glass on this mask, again fasten with photo clips, place in the light and print to the desired shade. After this remove mask No. 3 and No. 5, placing mask No. 6 in position on the print, cover with plain glass and place in the window to tint. Mask No. 6, being a trifle smaller than the opening in mask No. 5 will produce a dark outline on the border made by mask No. 5 and the balance of the paper will also become slightly tinted. In Figure No. 7, we present the finished print mounted in a folder.
1176. Upon examining this picture you will find a very dark, almost black, narrow outline around the small oval. This was made by mask No. 3, which was a trifle smaller than the opening in No. 2; next is a border of one inch, not quite so dark as the first outline. Next, there is a border about 2 1/2 inches wide not quite as dark as the one inch border; then a fine outline, a trifle darker, though not quite as dark as the first outline around the 2 1/2 inch border, and finally the balance of the print tinted to a light gray. With a little practice, care and patience, and a supply of different shapes and sizes of masks, a large variety of pleasing effects may be produced.