Make a pad of Canton flannel, get a piece of white castile soap, rub the pad on the soap until it is well covered, then with this soaped pad rub the surface of each print separately, carefully covering every part of the surface; keep the pad well soaped by rubbing it on the soap after every 2 or 3 prints. While this is being done the burnisher may be heated; when the tool is hot enough to hiss when touched by a wet finger, proceed to burnish. Do not use much pressure; too great pressure will degrade the whites of the picture.

When they are all burnished go over them again with a moderately soft lead pencil, touching up and blending any streaks or spots that may be found; if any streaks or dirty lines are discovered in the direction of the draw of the burnisher, they may be removed by light friction with a piece of Canton flannel moistened with alcohol. This completes the photograph.

Mr. Ernest Lacan, a prominent artist of Paris, France, about ten years ago, wrote for the Philadelphia Photographer an account of some of the prominent studios of that great city, from which I take a description of the studio and establishment of the celebrated Reutlinger.

This establishment comprises the fifth and sixth stories of a fine house on the Boulevard Montmartre.

A handsome and wide stairway leads to the studio. The first thing that strikes you on entering the antechamber, which is transformed into an office, is the lowness of the ceiling and the want of light. On the right is a room, larger and better lighted, for the sale of choice specimens of his work. On the left are the exhibition and waiting rooms, which are of medium size and whose principal ornaments are the framed pictures, which cover the walls. A small door leads to the skylight, of which the diagram at the head of this article is a correct view as taken from a photograph.

A small door leads to the skylight

The view is taken from the door at which you enter. This gallery is formed of two mansards, which have been united by removing the partition; is 39 feet long by 13 in breadth; its height to the top of the upper sash is about 16 feet; the light comes from the north. It is by means of an ingenious combination of white and blue shades, that the artist succeeds in obtaining the charming effects so much admired in his productions. At the end of the gallery is a small room for ladies. The door which is seen on the left leads to the laboratory, which is divided into three small apartments. The first is used for cleaning plates, the second for their preparation, and the third for developing negatives.

Loescher & Petsch, of Berlin

This is a diagram of the studio of the famous Loescher & Petsch, of Berlin, who became so well known, some years ago, through the style of picture called "Berlin Heads," which were among the first samples of fine photographs from retouched negatives brought to this country, and which certainly created a sensation.

The shades are arranged so as to show how some of the most charming effects of illumination are produced. The room is filled with diffused light, with a ray of direct light falling so as to produce a clear high light on the prominences of the head of the sitter.

The next diagram is one of the Biglow studios. Mr. Biglow is the author of a book on lighting and posing, which had a large sale, and is a valuable book for po-sitionists.

These three views represent forms of s k y-light and sidelight with north exposure, by which all the finest effects possible are obtained, but other forms of exposure are capable of being utilized with fine success.

The studio of Sarony, of New York, is lighted with a top light similar to the top light of the Biglow studio, and without any side light at all.

A prominent artist of Brooklyn produces very fine work under an east light, or rather a light a little south of east, which to the ordinary photographer would be considered a very difficult light to work. Good effects can be produced, however, under any form of light by the use of shades, screens and reflectors, so that no photographer need regret a favorable location, because unable to have a northern exposure for his light.

Lubricating The Prints PhotographyInStudioAndField 20

Fig. I.

The studio should be furnished with every requisite for the production of the finest work, such as

Lenses and Camera boxes,

Camera stands,

Pneumatic shutters for the lenses,

Scenic grounds; interior and exterior accessories, such as balustrades, rocks, grass-mats, flowers, tables, chairs, draperies, rugs, etc.; head-rests, screens, reflectors, and all such articles as can be advantageously introduced in a picture to improve and embellish.

All these things are of importance, but should be used with taste and judgment. The photograph should never be a picture of a piece of furniture, with a figure thrown in, but rather the accessories should be used only to improve the figure and make it more prominent by increasing the perspective, when possible or allowable.