This section is from the book "The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes: Being A Modern Treatise Of All The Processes Of Making And Manufacturing Footgear", by F. Y. Golding. Also available from Amazon: The Manufacture Of Boots And Shoes.
There are three primary forms of temperament - motive, vital, and mental - these names being applied according to the predominant characteristics of physical constitution, vitality, or mentality respectively.
The motive is the result of climate and habits, and is prevalent among mountaineers. In the Scotch and Swiss it is strongly marked. Its characteristics are large bones, hard muscles that are developed, prominent joints, and an angular figure of more than average height. The feet are long and bony, with large toe joints; the heel-measurement is large, and the joints and instep are nearly the same in girth. Boots for this class of foot must be made well up to measure, and be correctly shaped.
The vital stature is above medium, and has a greater breadth of body than the motive. The muscles and bones are not so conspicuous as in the motive, but the limbs are plump and tapering. It is the usual type of women, and the feet are small, symmetrical, and arched.
The mental type has a framework that is comparatively slight; the muscles are small and compact, designed rather for rapid action than strength. The structure is fine, and the feet are thin and nicely shaped.
Various combinations of the three types exist, and are usually classed by combining the two names that give a description of the prevailing qualities, the first name used denoting the greater development. They are motive-vital, motive-mental; vital-motive, vital-mental; mental-motive, mental-vital. The second of these combinations are largely found among the Americans, Scotch, North Irish, Welsh, and North Germans. The mental-motive is found in large cities, and the foot is long, thin, rather flat, and narrow in fitting.
The Feet usually met with may be arranged as under:- 1. Slim. -A smart symmetrically shaped foot, with arched instep, small joints, short heel, and thin ankle. The difference in measurement between the joints and instep in women's would be about 7/9 in., and in men's 8/9 in.
2. Long. - A thin, long, narrow-jointed foot, with a narrow sole-area and prominent heel. The foot is thin transversely below the ankle, and the instep would be about 3/9 in. greater than the joint-girth.
3. Average. - A plump, graceful foot, with an arched waist. It is round, and the instep is about 4/9 in. larger in women's and 5/9 in. in men's than the joint-girth.
4. Full. - A foot of great muscular development, prominent joints, thick, fleshy, and spreading. The difference between instep and joint is about 7/9 in.