Before examining some of the methods used for producing a standard, or primary pattern, the difference between the covering of a last, or surface-area, and a profile, or section, should be understood. To do this, make a forme on Soule's system, but before removing the paper from the last, flatten it out and mark thereon the profile. This is done by keeping a lead pencil upright - the last lying on its side, above the paper - and tracing the outline of the last. It would be better, however, to make a mean forme, and also a sectional outline of the same last. Make a couple of lines upon a sheet of paper at right angles to each other, and lay the mean forme upon it, so that the horizontal line just touches the ball and seat, and the vertical line the back of the forme. Trace the outline, and repeat the operation with the section. The relative difference between them will be seen, and should be noted.

The last should now be fitted up, say on the joints, making it a full quarter of an inch greater in girth. A mean forme and section will be made from the "fitted-up" last.

Laying the last upon a flat surface, the distance of the top of the toe from the level surface will measure the same in the hare last and in the joint-fitted instance; yet when the two formes are placed upon lines that are right-augled to each other, the height of the toe, measured from the base-line, is not the same. The forme taken from the last that has been fitted, is found to have the toe at a greater distance from the base than the one taken from the net last. Repeat this with the two sections, and the toe is equally distant. The greater the joint-girth the more the difference between the section and forme at the toe. This is an important principle, and will influence the determination of the most correct of the methods for the construction of a standard.

The Standard Pattern is the initial one produced from which the various parts are cut, such as vamps, quarters, linings, etc., and in a set of patterns is the one used to grade or scale the series from. It should be the finished shape with lasting-over allowances and draft made, and should have marked thereon the outlines of the vamps, etc. From the standard pattern, in this sense, is cut the lining pattern, quarters, and vamps, so that they may fit each other in proper relation. The standard may be completed from a previously constructed forme, or may be taken direct from the last, according to the system adopted and the experience of the cutter.