The edges of the various sections of the upper may be treated either(a) By leaving the lining and outside raw-edge, i.e. so that they are flush when stitched.

(b) By turning in the lining to show a level bead.

(c) By turning in the outside, and trimming off the lining.

(d) By inserting a bead between the outside and lining.

(e) By turning in both outside and lining.

Upper Fitting And Machining Or Closing. 257 If the edges are to be bound, they are done either by(1) The "flat-bound" method, where the binding is arranged equally to cover the outside and lining, that is, accommodated between the U-fold.

(2) The "bound-and-held-over "style - the binding being first stitched to the outside, and then well pulled over the lining and seamed.

(3) The "French-bound" method - the binding being closed to the outside and then well laid over, the lining being placed above the amount laid over, and, after stitching, trimmed off.

The "run-and-turn" or "bagged" methods are very similar. The face of the outside and lining are brought together and seamed as near to the edge as possible. It is then turned out and stitched again, giving a very similar appearance to that produced by method (e). This method of dealing with the edges is largely adopted to reduce the cost of turning in, and to obviate the use of paste during fitting.