The period [.] denotes the close of a sentence. A period is placed after every declarative and imperative sentence. All abbreviations are followed by period, also all numbers in the Roman notation.

The colon [.:] is placed between the chief divisions of a sentence, when these are but slightly connected, and' they are themselves divided by some other mark. A colon is used after a sentence which announces a distinct quotation, and is placed between clauses when the connection is so slight that any one of them might be a distinct sentence.

The semicolon [;] indicates a longer pause, and also divides compound sentences. A succession of clauses depending on one principal expression, should be separated by a semicolon; is also placed after an expression which introduces particulars. When a clause especially explains the meaning of some other expression, it is separated from that expression by a semicolon, and one is used to divide a sentence into sections, when the various parts are not sufficiently independent to require a colon.

The comma [,] denotes a slight pause, and divides a sentence into its component parts. A comma is placed between the particulars mentioned in a succession of words all in the same construction, one is placed between each pair of words, when each pair is in the same construction, also before and one after every parenthetical expression, and is used before a quotation closely connected with the preceding words. Expressions repeated must be separated by a comma, as must also a phrase or clause which explains, in any degree, the meaning of any other phrase or clause. All modifying expressions, unless closely connected with the rest of the sentence, are separated by a comma. A comma must be used in sentences which would otherwise be misunderstood, and placed where a word is understood, unless the connection is close.

The interrogation point [?] is placed after every sentence which denotes a direct question, and after each successive particular of a series of questions related in sense but distinctive in construction.

The exclamation point [!] denotes wonder or astonishment. An exclamation point is placed after every exclamatory sentence, clause, phrase or word. Where special emphasis is required, several exclamation points may be used. An exclamation point, enclosed in parentheses, is used to denote peculiar surprise. Most interjections take an exclamation point after them.

The dash [ - ] indicates a sudden change of subject. A sudden turn in a sentence is shown by a dash. An omission of the middle numbers in a regular series, or of a word, or part of a word, is denoted by a dash, one is usually placed before the answer to a question, when they both belong to the same line, and is often used instead of the parenthesis marks; it is also commonly used before an expression repeated for special emphasis, and always follows the sentence which introduces a quotation, when the quotation commences a new paragraph. A dash is often used to avoid too many paragraphs.

Quotation marks [" "] indicate a verbatim quotation. Every quoted passage is enclosed in quotation marks. Quotations consisting of more than one paragraph have the first quotation mark at the beginning of each paragraph, but the second is used only at the end of the last paragraph. When a quoted passage requires special attention, the first quotation mark may be used at the commencement of each line. When one quotation includes another, the latter has but half the first quotation mark before it, and half the second mark after it.

The stars [* *] or N. B. are used to invite special attention.

The brace [] connects several words with one common term.

The paragraph [] begins a new subject.

The section [§] is used to subdivide chapters.

The asterisk [*], parallels [||], dagger [], double dagger [] and section [§] are used as marginal reference marks.

The commercial a [@] is used in market quotations, and signifies "at" or "to."

The signs [] and lb means "per" and "pound," respectively.

The parentheses- [ () ] include something not essential to the sense.

The ellipsis [***] [------] denotes the omission of letters or words.

The index [] points to something of special significance.

Brackets [ ] are chiefly used to denote corrections.

The hyphen [-] connects the syllables or parts of a word.

The caret [ ) denotes that some letter, word or phrase has been omitted.

The apostrophe denotes a contraction.