The logical progression in the series of problems that we are following brings ns to the interesting process of "necking in"; that is, drawing a nut-bowl, vase, jardiniere, or pitcher, in sharply near the edge making a neck. This process is best illustrated by "necking in" a nut-bowl similar to those illustrated in Fig. 90. The first is a plain bowl, the second is fluted with convex flutes, and the third is fluted with concave flutes.

Fig. 92. Jardiniere, necked-in, edge and sides fluted.

The process of necking in is similar to that of fluting, the main difference being that the neck, which is simply a continuous flute running round the bowl, is horizontal instead of vertical. To "neck in" a nut-bowl, first draw a pencil line around the bowl near the edge just where the bowl begins to change its shape into the neck. Then place the tee-stake, No. 146-A,12 in the vise in the position shown in Fig. 87, and beat down the metal just above the pencil line. Care must be taken to strike the metal so that the neck hammer drives the metal down the side of the tool as shown in the drawing. It will be found necessary to anneal the bowl two or three times during this process.

The edge may be left flat as in the first and third bowls, Fig. 90, or it may be fluted and shaped, as in the second bowl, or the jardiniere. Fig. 92. In the latter case the order of steps is as follows: First, raise the bowl; Second, beat in the neck; Third, flute; Fourth, clean and planish; Fifth, color and finish.

Fig. 91, which shows the two views of the same bowl, shows the extent to which these problems may be carried. It also shows two simple problems that go naturally with a nut-bowl, namely, the nut-spoon and nut-pick.

There are five distinct methods of making a spoon by hand, and the spoon illustrated is made by the simplest process, which is to transfer the outline of the spoon to the flat piece of 18-gage metal, saw it out with the jeweler's saw, and beat the bowl of the spoon into shape in the hollow wooden block described before. It will be necessary to raise a flute down the handle to stiffen it, as the 18-gage metal is not strong enough if left flat, but it is plenty strong enough if it is fluted and shaped and well planished afterwards.

12See Fig. 64, p. 111.

The nut-pick is made from a piece of round soft copper wire 3/8" in diameter and as long as needed. The process is: heat the wire red hot, hold it by a pair of pliers on the tee-stake, and forge it into shape with hammers, then trim off the rough edges with a file.

Fig. 92 shows the extent to which this elementary raising and fluting can be carried with only a few inexpensive tools. The best way to approach these problems is to analyze the various processes and place them in order, and the problem then simplifies itself. The finished problem is valued for itself, but it cannot be compared to the benefit received by the maker in the acquired knowledge of tools and processes used in modifying a common material, the exercise of forethought and patience, the esthetic responses awakened, the necessary exercise of the imagination, the training in accurate observation, and, greatest of all, the joy of creating an object of utility and beauty.

Fig- 93. Brass nut-bowl, convex fluting'.