With the masses (head, chest and pelvis) represented by three blocks, unmoving in themselves, think of these blocks in relation to each other. Forget, for the moment, any connecting portions other than the slender wire of the spine. A soldier standing at attention would be an example of the symmetrical balance of these blocks one above the other. But this balance never exists when the body is in action. It seldom exists even in repose. Movement of the figure is determined by the shifting of one block in relation to the others. As a rule each is turned or' twisted to some extent. The spine allows such movements, which are controlled by the muscles (fig. 219).
When several objects are balanced at different angles, one above the other, they have a common center of gravity. In a drawing there must be a sense of balance between the counteracting forces regardless of where the center lines of gravity may fall. This is true no matter what the posture may be. A standing figure, thrown to one side, is stationary. The center of gravity passes from the pit of the neck to the supporting floor or feet (fig. 220).
Shade gives the impression of solidity and depth. It is best to avoid all elaborate tones. The fewer the tones the better. No two tones of equal size or intensity should appear side by side or directly above one another.
Forget everything that distinguishes one head from another and think of the masses common to all heads. Heads are about the same size. Four distinct forms compose the masses of the face (fig. 221).
(1) ;The forehead: square and passing into the cranium at the top.
(2) ;The cheek-bone region: flat.
(3) ;An erect, cylindrical form on which are placed the base of the nose and the mouth.
(4) ;The triangular form of the lower jaw. Begin by drawing in straight lines the general contour of the head (fig. 222).
Then draw the direction of the neck from its center, above the Adam's apple, to the pit, at the junction of the collar bone; now outline the neck, comparing its width and length with the head (2). Draw a line through the length of the face, passing it through the root of the nose, and through the base of the nose where the nose centers in the upper lip (3). Draw another line from the base of the ear at a right angle to the one you have just drawn (4). On the line through the center of the face, measure off the position of the eyes, mouth, chin. A line through these will parallel a line from ear to ear, intersecting at right angles the line through the vertical center of the face (5). With straight lines, draw the boundaries of the forehead, its top and sides, and the upper border of the eye sockets. Then draw a line from each cheek bone at its widest part to the chin, on the coresponding side, at the highest and widest part (6). Then, depending on whether the head is below or above the level of your eyes, it will be foreshortened upward or downward as the case may be. You now have the boundaries of the face and the features may be drawn in (7, 8).
The eye is the most expressive feature of the face. It is protected by the frontal bone and cheek bones. Its exposed portions consist of the pupil, iris, cornea, and "the white of the eye." The cornea is the transparent covering which fits over the iris much as a watch crystal fits over a watch. Only the upper lid moves, the lower remaining quite stable. The bulge on the upper lid, caused by the raised cornea, travels with the eye-ball as it moves, whether opened or closed.
The Nose (fig. 224)
The nose, wedgelikc in shape, has its root in the forehead and its base at the center of the upper lip.
As it descends from the forehead it becomes wider and larger. The bony part extends only half way down from the root, the end being held up by cartilages.
That part of the jaws in which the teeth are set is cylindrical in shape and controls the shape of the mouth. If the cylinder is flat in front, the lips will be thin and the mouth a slit. The greater the curve of the cylinder, the fuller will be the mouth and lips.
The ear is irregular in form. There is an outer rim often bearing the remains of a tip. There is an inner elevation behind the hollow of the ear, and the canal's opening is protected by a flap in front and by smaller flaps Mow and behind..