The developing, fixing, and washing of enlarged prints made by projection are the same as those processes for contract prints. The difference between the two lies entirely in the method of making the exposure. A typical enlarger is shown (fig. 276).

The negative is inserted between the light and the lens, and the paper is placed in a frame or easel on the table. The size of the print depends on the distance from the negative to the paper. In enlarging, special enlarging paper must be used, because contact paper takes too long an exposure.

Place the negative, emulsion or dull side down, in the negative carrier and turn on the enlarger. Place in the printing easel a piece of plain white paper (not photographic) the same size as the print desired. Move the borders of the easel (if they are adjustable) until the margins are equal. Move the enlarger head up and down until the image thrown on the paper is the size desired. Notice that you do not have to use the entire area of the projected image. A small portion may be used and a better composition will be achieved.

Move the focusing lever or knob until the image is at its sharpest. This focusing should be done when the lens of the enlarger is wide open. When the focus is sharp and the composition is determined, close down the lens one or two stops. Turn off the enlarger. Place a sheet of photographic paper, emulsion side up, in the easel, being careful not to move the easel from its predetermined position.

Turn on the enlarger. Make an exposure of about 15 seconds. Develop the print in the same manner as a contact print. If it is too dark, shorten the exposure.

If, after development, it is noticed that a certain small area of the picture is too dark and the rest is correctly printed, hold the light back from this area during part of the exposure by shading it with a small piece of irregularly-shaped cardboard on a wire. Keep the wire and cardboard moving up and down so that the sharp outline does not show. If a small area is too light in the final print, reverse the procedure. Cut a small hole with irregular edges in a piece of cardboard. Make the exposure for the majority of the print and then move the cardboard in and allow the light area to have a longer exposure. Once again, do not hold the cardboard still. Move it up and down.


The above suggestions are purely an outline for the basic procedures in photography. Many ideas for varying or extending these processes will occur to cedures. There are many excellent books which can the photographer after he has-learned the basic pro- >]»eed up the learning processes. (Sec bibl.ography).


Figure 276.