This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
The "dowels," which are tapering cylindrical pegs of tough wood, prepared beforehand, and kept dry, should be placed 3-12 in. apart in holes prepared for them by the centre-bit, all of uniform depth (secured by a gauge on the bit), and countersunk. The dowels are cut 1/8 in. shorter than the united depths of the holes, and rounded at the ends. The dowels are warmed for an hour to shrink them, then the joint is warmed, and thin hot glue is quickly applied to joint, dowels, and dowel-holes. This joint is largely used by chairmakers, and known as " framing." When the work comes shoulder to shoulder, the dowel-hole must be bored square to the shoulder.