This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
Those who are called upon to use "black" pointing mortar should never stain it with "lamp-black," "foundry sand," or "forge blowers," but procure from a powder manufactory a refuse called " green charge "; it is in a wet state like mortar, very cheap, and a little will go a long way. It should be thoroughly mixed when the pointing; stuff" is being made up, so as to avoid different shades of colours when the work becomes dry.
Much has been said about the various kinds of bond in brickwork, which will be more clearly understood by reference to the following diagrams. Fig. 1310 illustrates English bond, the courses being made up alternately of a row of headers a and stretchers b; Fig. 1311, Flemish bond, wherein the headers a and stretchers b occur alternately in the same course. ln angles of walls it is often necessary to introduce "closers" in order make the courses break joint; these closers are halves or quarters of bricks, cut other lengthways or crossways, and introduced last but one in the course, so that a hole brick may always come at the end. Figs. 1312, 1313 illustrate respectively the 1st and 2nd courses of the corner of a 9-in. wall in English bond: a headers, b closers, c stretchers. Figs. 1314, 1315 indicate respectively the 1st and 2nd courses of a all 2 bricks thick in English bond : a headers, b closers, c stretchers; and Figs. 1316, 1317, respectively the 1st and 2nd courses at an angle of the wall. Figs. 1318, 1319 show respectively the 1st and 2nd courses of a 1-brick wall in Flemish bond; and Figs. 1320, 1321, the same in a 2-brick wall.
Figs. 1322, 1323 are the 1st and 2nd courses respectively of the corner of a 1-brick wall in Flemish bond; and Figs. 1324. 1325, the same of a 2-brick wall. The bond used for garden walls consists of 3 stretchers and 1 header alternating in each course. A bond much used in Scotland has 5 courses of stretchers to 1 of headers. In the junction at right angles of 1-brick English bond walls, the 1st and 2nd courses respectively are as in Figs. 1326, 1327; in Flemish bond, they resemble Figs. 1328, 1329.