These are of various shapes and sizes, and are made of wrought, cast, and malleable iron. Fig. 445 illustrates many kinds in general use: a, joiners' cut "brad," varying in size from 1/4 in. to 2 in. long; b, flooring brad, of larger sizes, running 101b., 14 lb., 16 lb., and 20 lb. to the 1000, and costing 3s.-5s. per 1000; c d, fine cabinet brad, 3/8-2 in.; e, sash glaziers' brad; "brads" must be driven so that the head does not cross the grain of the wood, or they will be likely to split it. f g, strong and fine " clasp," the former running 7-3G lb. to the 1000, and the latter, 2-6 lb., useful in soft woods; r, another form; h i, fine and strong " rose." with flat points, the former ranging from 1 to 3 1/2 in. long, and 2 1/2 to 13 lb. per 1000, the latter 5-2G lb., also called "patent wrought"; j, "rose" or "gate," with sharp points, 2-3 lb. per 1000, much used in coarse work; k, flat point rose, driven across the grain they do not split the wood. 7, Flemish " tacks "; m, round " hob "; n, clasp "hob." o, fine "clout," l 3/4-71b. per 1000; p, strong "clout"; q, countersunk "clout"; r s, clog or brush nail; t, scupper; u, die deck and clasp deck "spikes"; r, clinker " tack "; w, tenter hook; x, diamond deck-spike; y, composition spike.

Holes should always be prepared for nails by means of a bradawl one size smaller than the nail to be used. Driven across the grain they hold twice as firmly as with it. Wetting the nail before driving causes it to rust slightly and therefore to hold all the more securely.