Fig. 216 is a specimen of pipe-fitting work made up to show the use of various types of fittings. The kind, size, and style of each fitting is given in the preceding list.

Fittings are usually made of brass, cast iron, or malleableized cast iron. The malleableized cast-iron fittings are known as malleable fittings and are adapted to high pressures. They are made in two styles known as beaded, with a rolled rim at the opening of the fitting; and plain, without this rim.

Cast-iron fittings are much more bulky than the malleable fittings and are used for pressures not over about 150 pounds as they are not elastic, although they may not burst under many times that pressure. Brass fittings (known as composition fittings) are used for their ornamental appearance.

Iron fittings are either black or galvanized.

Pipe fittings of large size or for use under high pressures are made with flanged instead of screwed ends. Special fittings are made for hydraulic pipe connections.