The well nigh lost art of chipping castings is described in an article of the "Mechanical World," which states that in the large modern shop of today there are but few apprentices who can do a creditable piece of chipping with a hammer and chisel. This is perhaps not to be regretted, as a chipped and filed surface is not to be compared with the work of the planing or the milling machine, and it is indeed a triumph for the machine man of today that the work is practically finished when it leaves his machine. The consequences of this is that surfaces which used to be cast to nearly the finished size and dressed up with hammer and chisel are now machined, and the need for skilful chipping and filing is gone. The tendency of today is to limit the work of the fitter to the fitting in of keys and the scraping of surfaces and journals, each man performing, as nearly as can be arranged, the same operation on one particular piece of work. This, of course, greatly reduces the cost of manufacture, as the men, through doing the samething constantly, become very expert, and working under a piecework or premium system, are able to make a very good rate of pay; but the apprentice has not the same chance to learn as he had, even though he spends his time of apprenticeship with different squads of workmen and has every chance given him. Thus there are many points to be learned when doing a piece of work from start to finish, which are not noticed when one starts work on a job that is already partly finished. An apprentice who has been trained in a shop of this kind feels very awkward when he goes to a small shop and has to use a hammer and chisel frequently; or, being sent to an outside job where there is a lot of chipping to be done which it would not pay to shift to a machine, he does not very well know the best way to start work or have his chisels properly ground.