In securing sand for mixing mortar or concrete, if it is possible to select from several varieties, that sand should be chosen which is composed of sharp, angular grains, varying in size from coarse to fine. Such sand is, however, not always obtainable, nor is it essential for good work. And, coarse-grained sand which is fairly clean will answer the..purpose. If gravel, sticks, or leaves be present they should be removed by screening. The voids in sand vary from 30 to 40 per cent, according to the variation in size of grains. A sand with different-sized grains is to be preferred, because less cement is required to fill the voids. By mixing coarse and fine sand it is possible to reduce the voids considerably.

It is customary to use the terms " river sand, " " sea sand," or "pit sand, " according to the source of supply. River sand as a rule has rounded grains, but unless it contains an excess of clay or other impurities, it is suitable for general purposes. When river sand is of a light color and fine-grained it answers well for plastering.

Sea sand may contain the salts found in the ocean. The tendency of these salts to attract moisture makes it advisible to Wash sea sand before using it for plastering or other work which is to be kept perfeotly dry.

Pit sand for the most part will be found to have sharp, angular grains, which make it excellent for mortar or concrete work. Where clay occurs in pockets it is necessary either to remove it, or else see that it is thoroughly mixed with sand. The presence of clay in excess frequently makes it necessary to wash pit sand before it is suitable for use.

The results of tests made in the laboratory would indicate that the presence of clay, even in considerable amounts, is a decided benefit to " lean " mortars, whereas it does not appreciably affect the strength of a rich mixture.

It is important that gravel for use in concrete should be clean, in order that the cement may properly adhere to it, and form a strong and compact mass. As with sand, it is well to have the pieces vary in size, thereby reducing the voids to be filled with mortar. The voids in general range from 35 to 40 per cent.

The best stone for concrete work consists of angular pieces, varying in size and having a clean, rough surface. Some form of strong and durable rock is to be preferred, such as limestone, trap, or granite. The total output of the crusher should be used below a maximum size, depending upon the nature of the work in hand. All material under one-eighth inch will act as so much sand and should be considered as such in proportioning the mixture. Precautions must be taken to insure a uniform distribution of the smaller pieces of stone, otherwise the concrete will have an excess of fine material in some parts and a deficiency in others.

Less than 8 per cent of clay will probably not seriously impair the strength of the concrete,provided the stones are not coated with it, and may prove a benefit in the lean mixtures. The voids in. crushed stone depend upon the shape and variation in size of pieces, rarely falling below 40 per cent, unless much fine material is present, and in some cases reaching 50 per cent. A mixture of stone and gravel in equal parts makes an excellent aggregate for concrete.

It would appear from tests that crushed stone makes a somewhat stronger concrete than gravel, but the latter is very extensively used with uniformly good rosuits. This superiority of stone over gravel for concrete work is attributed to the fact that the angular pieces of stone interlock more thoroughly than do the rounded pebbles, and offer a rougher surface to the cement. A point in favor of gravel concrete is that it requires less tamping to produce a compact mass than in the case of crushed stone. Then, too, the proportion of voids in stone being usuall y greater than in gravel, a proportionately greater amount of mortar is required to fill the voids, which means a slight increase in the cost of concrete.

Cinder concrete is frequently used in connection with expanded metal and other forms of reinforcement for floor construction, and for this purpose it is well adapted on account of light weight. Its porosity makes it a poor conductor of heat and permits the driving of nails. Only hard and thoroughly burned cinders should be used, and the concrete must be mixed quite soft so as to require but little tamping and to avoid crushing the cinders. Cinder concrete is much weaker, both in tension and compression, than stone or gravel concrete, and for this reason admits only of light reinforcement.