Stanley C. Johnson, B. A

What a delightful range of tones may be secured with comparative ease by partial printing and subsequent development of P.O. P! Red chalks and ivory blacks, it is true, are not obtainable, but all sorts of pleasing greens, rich browns, and many useful shades of violet are well within the limits. The process from end to end may be carried out at night-time in an ordinary sitting-room; it might almost be said in an arm-chair. The reader therefore cannot complain of its intricacies.

The working will be familiar to all those who use gaslight paper. Open a fresh packet of P.'O. P. and fill the print frames in a shaded corner of the room. Odd sheets taken from an almost finished packet left over from last summer will not do. Keep the supply intended for development quite separate, and do not allow it to be handled in daylight or in strong gas-light.

The length of the exposure depends, in a great measure, on the developer used and the color of the print desired. As a basis for trial exposures, light a yard of magnesium ribbon, hold it six inches from the negative and keep it continually on the move. When actually making prints arrange the frames five or six at a time in a semicircle, and burn the magnesium at a point equidistant from them all. This will save both time and money.

Quinol gives tones ranging from red brown to greenish grey, according to the strength of the developer, and the time taken in developing. If the bath is strong and its action rapid, there will be a tendency towards green, but if it is weak and slow, we may expect a brownish print. A good formula is:

Quinol 1 1/2 grs.

Soda Sulphite 6 "

Soda, caustic 2 1/2 "

Water 1 oz.

Another useful formula is

Water 10 ozs.

Gallic acid solution (concent) 10 "

Sodium acetate 1/2 ".

Fish glue 1 1/2 "

The last ingredient is included to arrest the decomposition of the gallic acid. Prints that develop in this solution in one minute are a fine brown, while those that take double the time are a pleasing greenish black. Vigorous negatives only are satisfactory with this formula. By lengthening the exposure and substituting potassium oxalate or sodium or potassium tartrate for the sodium acetate, warmer tones may be secured. No previous washing is required with this bath; remove the prints as the shadows begin to blacken, and fix after a very brief and hasty rinse.

Chestnut prints are obtainable with pyro 15 grains, glacial acetic acid 25 minims, alcohol (90 percent solution) 1/8 oz., water 9 ozs.

Violet tones of a very pleasing nature result from developing with pyrocatechin 2 grains, sodium acetate 10 grains, and water 20 ozs., followed by immersion in any ordinary combined bath, without intermediate washing. Pyro developed prints also become violet when placed in the combined bath.

Except where otherwise stated the undeveloped picture must be bathed for five minutes in a solution of potassium iodide 6 grains and water 1 oz. Many workers use a bromide instead of the iodide, but the latter facilitates a greater range of colors.

The various steps are thus summed upas (a) printing, (b) bathing in iodide, (c) washing, (d) developing, (e) rinsing, (f) fixing, and (g) prolonged washing. As a precaution against acidity of the hypo solution, it is well to pass the prints quickly through a bath of soda sulphite previous to fixing.

Whenever the color of a developed print is considered unsatisfactory, toning should be resorted to. The combined bath gives purer whites than the separate ones, but if we cannot reconcile, ourselves to its use it will be well to fix before toning, and wash plentifully between. Patchiness is the outcome of insufficient washing.

Negatives that have thin or dense areas are unsuitable. With them forcing must be practised, and double tones nearly always result.

The colors tob obtained with this method of working are by no means vivid. On a semi-rough paper the effects of the various greens, drabs and browns will be highly suitable for winter landscapes, and in all those cases where minuteness of detail has been suppressed. Readers who have grown tired of the never-varying tone of bromides will find the foregoing hints of some value. Almost any brand of paper will do, but there are just a few kinds specially labelled by the makers as unsuitab.e. These must be guarded against.

In conclusion, it may be well to add that magnesium is selected as the illuminant solely on account of its convenience. Prints exposed to gas or daylight are equally suitable. - Photographic Monthly.