The fastenings of the plank to the frames may be one of three kinds, copper nails riveted over burrs or washers inside the frames, galvanized iron nails, or brass screws. The first is the most expensive, and the most work, but in the long run is probably the best. The second is the cheapest and perhaps the most common method. When carefully done so as not to split the frames in the proces it is a good fastening. The nails must, however, be clinched, merely driving them into the frames is not sufficient on such light-work as small boat. The third method is a very good one if screws of sufficiently large wire are used. If the screws are too small the shrinking and swelling of the wood will break them off and destroy the fastenings. The writer is inclined for the present purpose, to recommend the galvanized nails. They should be the •chisel pointed boat nails 2 in. long. A hole must be bored for each of such a size that the nail requires only a moderate amount of driving to set it up into place. The nails are driven with their points parallel with the grain of the frame, so as to clinch easily. They are driven so that their heads are sunk just below the surface of the plank, and the point clinched across the grain of the timber. To prevent the nail from backing out during the clinching, a heavy, pointed piece of iron, such as the head of a top-maul is held against the head; this allows the nail to be solidly clinched and the plank drawn up solid on to the frame.

A Twenty Five Foot Auxiliary Yawl Setting up the F 177

Fig. 18. a,

If copper fastening is used, the nails should be of such a length as to project about 3/8 in. inside the frame, a copper burr, or washer is then driven on, the point is cut off about 1/8 in. outside of the washer, and headed down, the iron being held against the head.

If brass screws are used they should be about 3/8 in. diameter under the head and 1 1/2 in. long. Two boardings must be made, one through the plank, of the size of the body and another in the frame of the size at the bottom of the thread. The screw should be smeared with soap or grease before driving, and a bit brace with a screw driver bit used to set them up. Fastening by this method can be very quickly done.

The garboard can now be fastened in place in the manner chosen. Fastenings should be placed about % in. from the edge of the plank, and should be spaced about 3 in. apart. A row of fastenings is also driven through the garboard into the overhanging rabbet of the bottom. These are about 4 in. apart and are driven carefully so as not to split either the garboard or the rabbet.

The joint between the two portions of the plank is now to be covered by a butt-block of hard wood, fastened over the joint on the inside, between the frames. This butt block should fill the space from frame to frame, as in Fig. 17, and be about 1/8 in. wider than the plank. Fastenings are then driven through the ends of the plank into the butt-block. The ends of the plank at stem and stern are fastened with either nails or screws.

The distance around the mould No. 4 from the upper edge of the garboard to the sheer line on No. 4 mould should now be divided into equal spaces of about 6 in. each. The distance on each of the other moulds is divided into the same number of equal parts, the length, of course, decreasing towards the ends. These lines are for use in fitting the other planks, to give an equal taper to all.

To fit the next plank a "spiling" must be taken, using the thin wide batten before described. The bat ten is clamped around the frames about 1 in. from the edge of the garboard and allowed to take its own natural curve without any forcing sidewise. The batten will diverge from the edge of the strake in a gradual curve.

Referring to Fig. 18, cut A shows a view looking up at the bottom, showing the plank already in place, the batten and the frames. The distances from the edge of the batten to the edge of garboard at each frame are measured and recorded, the centre of each frame is also marked in chalk on the batten. The batten is then transferred to the board from which the plank is to be cut, as in cut B. The distances just taken are then laid off from the; edge of the batten at the proper point, giving the points on the curve as shown. This is the outline of the lower edge of the plank. The widths of the plank are then measured on each mould and laid off as in cut C, giving the upper edge of the plank. The plank is then cut out and fitted in place on the boat. The butt on this plank should not be placed over that in the garboard, but should be shifted about three feet away. The plank when cut out will require a certain amount of fitting, which is done by trial. Before fastening into place a duplicate should be marked out for the other side. When fitted, the plank may be fastened in place as already described. Planking should be continued up around the turn of the bilge, removing the ribbands as necessary. The top streak should now be fitted, great care being observed to have a good sheer line. The remainder of the plank are then fitted successively one below the other until the space is closed up. All the joints should be as close as possible and each plank should be forced down against the preceding one as firmly as possible. In order to make room for the calking each edge of the plank should be beveled slightly so that, while the planks are close together on the inside, they are about 1/16 in. open on the outside. The planks around the bilge will probably need to be hollowed slightly on the inside to get sufficient curvature without splitting the plank. Each plank should be fastened into place before fitting the next one. There are many schemes and devices which cannot here be described, but which will occur to the builder as the work proceeds. Numerous clamps are a necessity in planking and a very handy device consists of a chain passing down to the foundation, with a crew clamp for forcing the plank down against its neighbor. The various butts in the planks should be distributed as widely as possible and those in corresponding planks should be in the same position.

The projecting ends of the planks at the stern may now be i mimed off even with the stern board.

Sevaral braces should be fastened across the top of the boat from frame to frame to prevent it from spread-ing and the mould may now be removed. If any change of shape is noticed upon the removal of the moulds, braces should at once be fitted to restore it. When the moulds have been removed, frames are to be bent in in their places and fastened.

The planking should now be rough jointed, that is, the sharp corners and greater irregularities removed with a smoothing plane. No attempt should be made to finish it at this time, only the roughest parts being removed.

A Twenty Five Foot Auxiliary Yawl Setting up the F 178A Twenty Five Foot Auxiliary Yawl Setting up the F 179