Now go to the other extreme and to obtain the four kinds of effects from the slow or very slow plate Plate clases 4 and 5; the difficulty seems greater, and to many the thing will seem to be imposible, but we will proceed. First of all one must learn the requisite exposure of the slow plate emulsion to be used, in order to obtain full and complete detail in all shadows regardless of what may happen to the parts of the negative representing the high lights. There are very few who know how to give full exposure for slow plates. With this knowledge work in this way: For A's effects, give at least five times the exposure for complete detail in the shadows and develop with a developer diluted with twenty times the normal amount of water, no bromide. For the stock solution given herein use forty parts of water. Ordinarily, the slow plate develops much more rapidly than the last one. For A's negatives with twenty times diluted developer give ten times usual development with normal developer.
Right here should be given the caution that in using very dilute developer, the development should be by tank or with very deep trays filled to the brim in order to have a sufficient quality of the chemicals to produce the necessary results. For B's effects with a slow plate, give nearly full exposure to shadows and use normal developer. This kind of plate is ideal for B's results. Use a little bromide. For C's effects, that is, to obtain the usual "good" negative, slightly overexpose for shadows, make developer one-fifth usual strength and give five times usual period of development, omitting bromide. For D's effects, use the slow plate which is ideal for poster work. Expose for high lights and use normal developer, with bromide. Of course the average or medium plate, class 3, is for the average work and to this class our theory is particularly applicable as obtaining the greater variety with greater ease. Exposing for shadows should be learned as with the slow plate.
For A's effects with class 3 plates, expose several times over that for shadows and weaken developer to one-tenth; under-develop and use no bromide. For B's effects: expose for shadows and use normal developer with some bromide. For C's effects: expose for shadows and use developer one-half normal and no bromide. For D's effects: expose for high lights, use normal developer with bromide and full development.
The things which the writer, as well as the reader, has to contend with in learning the means of working on this interesting theory are, the lack of exact knowledge on the part of far more than nine-tenths of the bulb-squeezers and button pushers. Please, reader, do not feel offended, as this cannot posibly mean you, as to two or three important points referred to, for instance: "normal development," "exposure for shadows," and the correct use of bromide of potash, so that a brief reminder on these points will be useful. Normal development means such development of a properly expressed plate as will give correct definition in the lights and the darker parts of the resulting print. Exposing for shadows means disregarding the effects of the strong lights and exposing for the poorly lighted colored parts of the view or subject. The correct use of bromide is that which will avoid the darkening of the unexpected film by the chemicals.
I writing technical articles of this kind, one need lay aside personal ideas as to his individual methods and treats only of the general idea of getting every thing in the negative. An article of this kind is meant to show what an average worker does in order to produce a given effect, nevertheless the four general effects here described will cover fairly well those sought for and obtained by the photographic workers of all schools and classes; for instance, A, illustrates the "low-tone" impressionist; B, the very new amateur; C, the average "good" photographer, and D, the "broad" impressionist.
In order to obtain good results from the working out of this theory the photographer should ignore a third theory; that of factoral development. It is a theory that will not work in all-round practice. The factoral theory is, this: multiply the time of the appearing of the image by the factoral ratio of the developer. The theory answers very well with a normally exposed plate but it is the most fallacious when applied either to the over-exposed or under-exposed plate. Let readers who like to experiment try for themselves, follow instructions and observe results. The treatment for the best negative from an under-exposed plate is prolonged development with rather weak developer, the tray and plate being, of course, covered to exclude even red light, and the tray rocked ocasionally. The best results from an over-exposed plate are obtained by considerable over-developing and afterwards reducing to the proper printing density. Hundreds of overexposed negatives are thrown away by failure to know or act upon. this simple rule which is in flat contradiction of that of fractoral development.
Laying aside the subject of producing varied effects from one form of dry plate and with one developer, there can be great variety in the effect of the photographic print acording to the printing paper employed. For illustration: To print for softness and full detail, use a printing out or toning paper, and for richness of tone, as well as fair detail, use platinum paper. While these facts are interesting and useful, they are also well known to the advanced amateur or professional.
Let us now continue the illustration of our theory by showing how varied effects can be obtained from any one printing medium and with any one reducing agent or developer. The quick thinking reader will probably have already foreseen part of that which may be said on the subject, as the result of the description of the methods for working dry plates just given. Taking the printing mediums in the order in which I have named them, the printing out or toning paper has the least possible elasticity in the methods of working it. Some small modification can be made, even here, for the contrast may be increased by over-printing and then using toning and fixing baths made to "cut" the print, or else by having the toning and fixing considerably prolonged in action. The "Regular" Velox is next in its resistance to variety in printing effects but a considerable over-exposure and an inversely weakened developer with omission of bromide will produce flatness or softness with detail while the usual exposure and development tends to strong contrasts with this paper. The several grades, however, give a wide variety of results. Bromide paper is very much more like the dry plate in producing varied effects for the same negative in contact work, the rules briefly being as follows: To produce a soft detailed print from a dense, harsh negative, the worker should know, to begin with, that the proper or normal printing distance for contract work with bromide paper is five or six feet from the printing light. To produce softness and detail from a harsh negative, hold the printing frame one foot from the printing light and give dc able normal exposure using weak developer without bromide. Suppose that normal exposure five feet distance were twenty-five seconds, normal exposure at one foot would be one second, double exposure two seconds. The experiment is most interesting.
To produce contrast, print from a weak negative using bromide paper, supposedly a difficult thing to do, one may cut down the light to say one twenty-fifth or better, make the exposure at five times the normal distance; that will be twenty-five feet and the normal exposure will be twenty-five times that at five feet, in order to obtain the same depth of printing. Underexposure, say fifteen times instead of twenty-five times that at five feet, and use strong developer with some excess of bromide.
To produce alternately, soft and hard results from the same negative, follow first the rules for the overexposure at one foot and then those for the underexposure at twenty-five feet, bearing in mind that the proportionate normal exposure at the two distances is as one to six hundred and twenty-five or as one second for one distance and ten minutes and a quarter for the other. The reader may know all of this but a reminder may save him good printing paper.
Singularly enough, platinum paper is capable of greatty increased or diminished contrast but this discovery was fully treated in my article on the subject which appeared in this magazine two or three years ago. Those who have read it will recall that to obtain great contrast the paper was to be over printed until the image should be reversed, development being by cold water only. For contrast and detail, print until the paper is almost uniformly darkened prior to reversal and develop with hot water. For softness from harsh negatives, print nearly to normal and use saturated developer, nearly boiling. I give this repetition very briefly for the reason that former issues (I won't say back numbers, for Camera Craft never is a "back number"), are unobtainable, having been destroyed in the great San Fransico fire. It is at the urgent request for "copy" on the part of my good friend the Editor, who has had his full share in the heavy losses from the fire, that I have very hastily prepared this treatise on a subject which ought to be a very interesting one.-Camera Craft.